Категория: 05.00.00 — Techincal Sciences

About the legitimacy of the technical operation process description by semi-markov models in relation to the aircraft fleet

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_2_34

Sergey S. Trishin

Evgeniya A. Achkasova

Oksana G. Boiko

Galina A. Isheeva

Abstract. The authors studied the time the Mi-8T Mi8-MTV aircraft spent in the states of technical operation. The statistical data of the operating airline of JSC “Norilsk Avia” were used. Statistical distribution laws are formalized for each time series of variations. The conformity of the theoretical and obtained statistical laws of time distribution according to the Pearson criterion has been verified. It is confirmed that the process of technical operation of aircraft in practical tasks can be considered as a semi-Markov one.

Keywords: semi-Markov process, time spent in the process state, statistical data processing, exponential distribution, technical operation of aircraft, integral distribution function.

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Principles of integration of management systems and safety management systems

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_2_6

Nikolai S. Khersonsky

Lyudmila G. Bolshedvorskaya

Abstract. The complication of aircraft maintenance processes in the aerodrome area under the influence of extreme, and often uncontrolled use of unmanned aerial vehicles, jeopardizes aircraft (AC) flight safety, entailing consequences from acts of unlawful interference and terrorist threats, danger to life and public health, environmental changes. This is the purpose of the study, which resulted in a new mechanism for ensuring safety through the development of a management systems integration model (IMS) and a flight safety management system (SMS). Particular attention is paid to the issue of introducing electronic IMS models in combination with SMS, the development of which is built taking into account the requirements of the management system and modern IT technologies that ensure the interconnection of the main, supporting processes and management processes, indicators of management processes, flight safety and parameters of the main business processes with the business characteristics of the aerodrome.

Keywords: Risks, quality, flight safety, integration, integrated management system, Bayesian trust networks, Petri nets.

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Automated device for determining the changes in phase and state of polymer materials

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_2_19

Nikolai G. Filippenko

Denis V. Bakanin

Vladimir S. Bychkovsky

Abstract. This paper is devoted to the development of a control system for the study of thermophysical properties and phase transformations in polymer and composite materials. The use of polymeric materials instead of non-ferrous and stainless metals is a necessary and promising process in the production and repair of units and mechanisms of aircraft. This trend has received particular development in recent decades, not only in aviation, but also in the entire transport engineering. Replacing metals with plastics and composites based on them reduces the main indicator in the products of this industry, namely its weight. Often, when designing and operating aircraft, it becomes simply impossible to manufacture competitive products without the use of polymers and composites in their design. The strength properties of polymers in a number of aircraft designs are compensated by the resources of their use, which are not always measured by significant time resources. Nevertheless, despite the unique capabilities of new structural polymers, the issue of changing their electro-physic-chemical properties in the process of exposure to temperature loads and other external factors during operation remains open. The algorithm of automated control and monitoring of the experimental study of the process of high-frequency electrothermy presented by the authors makes it possible to obtain more objective data on the results of the studies. The implemented algorithm of the automated control system, in the form of a software package, made it possible to obtain new and clarify the existing results of previously conducted experiments in relation to structural materials used in the manufacture and repair of aircraft and other vehicles.

Key words: transport, polymeric materials, composites, thermophysical properties, automated control system for scientific research, phase transformations.

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Experimental study of the distribution laws of output signals of microelectromechanical navigation sensors of an unmanned aerial vehicle

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_101

Andrei A. Sanko

Aliaksey A. Sheynikov

Gafur Sh. Tuganov

Abstract. The article presents the results of studies of distribution laws of output signals of microelectromechanical sensors used for platformless inertial navigation systems (INS) installed on lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). As object of study, the GY-91 sensor was used which is made with the use of microelectromechanical technology and has an inertial measuring unit consisting of three elements located orthogonally: a turn meter, an accelerometer, a magnetometer and a single-channel barometer. Formulas for approximating the mean square deviations of overload, pitch angle and angular velocity indications for various test conditions are given. It is recommended to use the obtained dependences when calibrating accelerometers and angular velocity sensors. Recommendations on the use of different filtering methods depending on the distribution laws of the output parameters of the sensor are given. Various filters used for platformless INS sensors, such as the Kalman filter, the median filter, the AB filter and the complementary filter, are considered. A comparative analysis of algorithms for filtering the output signals of microelectromechanical sensors according to the value of signal-to-noise ratio for an aircraft-type UAV at different propeller speeds was performed. Recommendations are given on the use of the obtained research results for the algorithmic support of lightweight UAV navigation systems.

Key words: sensors, gyroscope, accelerometer, errors, distribution law.

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Role and place of cognitive information converters of pilot activity algorithms in the process of control of highly automated aircraft

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_18

Ivan S. Muravyev

Abstract. When flying in automatic mode, the pilot is outside the manual control loop and functions as an operator in the system. Congestion of the visual channel of perception of information coming to the pilot, the need to intervene in control through the influence of the pilot on the program of operation of the aircraft, and not through controls, leads to a change in the operational field of activity of pilots. To develop new piloting skills as part of the operator’s duties as a pilot, a different critical view of research in this area is needed.

Keywords: activity algorithm, information, analysis, consistency, manageability, transformation.

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Problems of learning the flight operation manual while developing knowledge and skills of fighter aviation cadets concerning the actions in emergencies during the flight

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_37

Nikolay A. Kupriyanov

Sergey A. Proshkin

Sergey V. Stadnik

Pavel D. Solodovnik

Abstract. The article deals with the results of the study of mastering quality and accuracy of actions in emergencies during the flight by the fighter aviation cadets while flying the YAK-130. The examples demonstrating visually the impact of registration and interpretation of some material relating to “The flight operation manual” on the process of knowledge and skills formation have been examined. “A tree of problems” giving an opportunity to join the interpretation of emergencies during the flight to safety of flights consequently on an example of “The flight operation manual” learning has been synthesized. The obtained results of the research allowed us to formulate the recommendations on improving “The flight operation manual”. The statistical estimates of applying the described recommendations while developing knowledge and skills of fighter aviation cadets concerning the actions in emergencies during the flight are presented.

Key words: human factor, flight crew, flight, failure, emergency, mental stability.

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Analysis of methods for evaluation of the irregularities changing of the aerodrome pavement in the Far North and the Arctic

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_6

Viktor M. Rukhlinsky

Lyudmila G. Bolshedvorskaya

Shamil F. Ganiev

Abstract. The present article emphasizes that when managing risks to ensure the safety of the operator’s flights, hazard factors due to the occurrence of uneven runways of aerodromes located in conditions with extreme climatic conditions are of great importance. In this regard, the relevance of the research topic is due to the lack of research on existing methods and algorithms for assessing the roughness of airfield pavements in order to reduce their negative impact on aircraft operating in the Far North and the Arctic.

Key words: risk management, runway, airfield roughness.

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The methodology, algorithm and criterion of quantitative evaluation of the quality of the landing approach maneuver and landing of a medium-haul aircraft according to the data of objective control means

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_51

Vladimir V. Ustinov

Viktor V. Kashkovsky

Lusine G.Chobanyan

Abstract. The paper proposes methods and algorithms for evaluating the piloting technique of a medium-haul aircraft at the stage of the landing approach maneuver and landing itself, considering the weighting coefficients of the significance of the flight parameters and the stages of the maneuver.

The paper aims to reduce labor costs for processing flight information, eliminate subjectivity and increase the reliability of the results of the evaluation of the quality of aircraft piloting techniques by the pilot within the existing system of objective control of civil aviation of the Russian Federation.

The novelty of the paper is in the development of a complex criterion for evaluating the quality of aircraft piloting techniques by the pilot. The development of algorithms and programs for calculating the weighting coefficients of the significance of each parameter and the stages of the flight task element, the correlation of parameters, qualitative or quantitative evaluation of the flight tasks performed are taken into account.

Thus, the expediency of developing and implementing a separate software module for a ground-based flight information processing complex of the «Topaz-M» type has been determined.

Key words: flight safety, piloting techniques, the normal law of distribution of random variables, weight coefficients.

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The way to improve eco-friendliness of the aviation turboshaft engine

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_1_73

Sergey V. Skorobogatov

Dmitry V. Vostretsov

Abstract. Aircraft flight is the main operation of any airline. To ensure competitiveness and good economical indices the flight time should be considerably longer than the total time an airplane spends on the ground. Aircraft flight is provided by a power plant, which is based on heat engines – heat machines that convert heat energy into effective mechanical work. The heat additive to the operating fluid in such engines nearly always occurs by means of hydrocarbon fuel (kerosene or aviation gasoline) combustion. While burning, the combustion products are released, some of which cause significant harm to the environment. Increasing environmental friendliness is an actual task today, and non-compliance of engines with ICAO standards on hazardous emissions limits the domestic aircraft sales and exploitation abroad. In this regard, the search for ways to improve the environmental performance of aircraft engines is a priority for the aviation industry.

Key words: combustion chamber, aviation gas-turbine engine, emissions of harmful substances, environmental friendliness.

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The experience of using GNSS software-defined recievers

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_88

Roman O. Arefyev

Oleg N. Skrypnik

Natalya G. Arefyeva (Astrakhanceva)

Abstract. The paper describes the experience of using software-defined receivers for receiving signals from GPS and Beidou navigation satellites. The peculiarities of the GNSS SDR platform and implementation of the satellite navigation system receivers on its basis were considered. The structure of the GNSS SDR flow graph with description of the functional capacity of each block was shown. As an RF part of the receiver, a HackRF platform with an active antenna and Temperature Controlled Crystal Oscillator was used. The receiver was tested with help of the SN-3803M simulator radiating GPS signals. The dependences of the time required for position-fixing and the number of the navigational satellites which provide tracking on the given false alarm probability were obtained experimentally.

Through natural experiments the authors compared the performance (number of tracking satellites, positioning accuracy, dilution of precision) of the SDR-receiver and ATGM336H portable receiver applied to the GPS and Beidou systems. The main features of the receivers operation were identified and analyzed.

Keywords: GPS, SDR, Beidou, software-defined receiver, dilution of precision, positioning accuracy.

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