# 3, 2022

Air transport security

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_3_6

Anatoly G. Guziy

Dmitry A. Shiryaev

Abstract. The article presents an original formalizable logical-probabilistic model for the development of hazardous situations in flight, the use of which contributes to the deepening of the analysis of flight safety as a state of the air transport system, covering all its components and interfaces directly or indirectly involved, the current state of which determines the risk of an accident in each specific flight.

It is shown that the effectiveness of measures to reduce the risk of aviation accidents (prevention of aviation events) within the framework of the civil aircraft flight safety management system is largely determined by the level of organization, depth and quality of the investigation of aviation events.

The developed model is essential for organizing the collection of data and recording the results of aviation events investigation, as well as hazard and risk factors that pose a threat to the safety of civil aircraft flights. It allows you to implement a systematic approach to the investigation of aviation accidents, aviation incidents and their prerequisites, providing coverage of all directly or indirectly involved components of the air transport system and interfaces, the current state of which determines the risk of an accident in each particular flight.

The collection and registration of the results of the investigation of aviation events, data on hazard and risk factors for flight safety within the framework of the state system for managing the safety of civil aircraft flights on the basis of the developed model contributes to the fulfillment of the requirements of international and national legislation by all participants in the flight safety management process.

Key words: flight safety, dangerous situations, hazard factors, accident prevention factors, probability of development of a dangerous flight situation, investigation of aviation events.

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DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_3_20

Ivan Stanislavovich Murav’ev

Abstract. Modern automated aircraft is a system with high information value of its operation parameters. The motor skill of the pilot in the flight control modes using autopilot and auto-throttle remains untapped on such types of aircraft. This leads to a lack of information about the aircraft state in flight and increases the risk of an emergency. To solve this problem, the authors developed a new method that allows pilots to evaluate the functioning of complex control systems, based on the formation of an integrated skill in combining static and dynamic parameters from various sources of information located in the cockpit. This method is based on a mathematical model for assessing the effectiveness of the operator’s activities and allows developing a methodology for training pilots to assess the functioning of automated aircraft systems and the state of the aircraft itself in flight.

The method consists in the fact that when performing a flight in the semi-automatic control mode, the pilot must partially replace the autopilot with manual piloting. By executing the commands set on the flight mode control panel, the pilot is partially dependent on the operating conditions of the automatics involved in operation. The theoretical calculation shows that the flight should be divided into specific stages, and the parameters of the information sources presented to the pilot in flight should be divided into static and dynamic ones. When training, it is necessary to stepwise increase the information load on the pilot through the static parameters of the information sources, requiring the student to withstand them by influencing the dynamic parameters. It is also necessary to gradually change the level of automation of the piloting mode.

The results of the experiment made it possible to determine that the participants of the experimental group were 24% more effective in performing the flight when moving from a flight with a high degree of automation to a flight with a minimum degree of automation. The processing of the experiment results showed that using the proposed preparation method when evaluating the functioning of automated aircraft systems provided the statistically significant efficiency.

Keywords: information, efficiency, evaluation of functioning, piloting, method, experiment.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_3_33

Nikolai S. Khersonsky

Ludmila G. Bolshedvorskaya

Abstract. The purpose of this work is to determine the practical applicability of statistical methods for assessing the compliance of manufactured products with the requirements of regulatory documentation and substantiating the feasibility of strategic planning of their production range. The advantage of this study is the development of a universal algorithm for the system of applying statistical methods to control nonconforming products and reduce the number of defects caused by known and little-known causes. The reliability of the conclusions obtained is due to the results of experiments carried out as part of the technological process, the objects of which were cylindrical parts made by pressing from materials of various physical and chemical composition used in various industries: aviation, mechanical engineering, shipbuilding, defense, etc. 

Key words: statistical methods, quality of components, nonconforming products, requirements of regulatory documentation, flight safety.

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Aircraft, aircraft engines and methods of their operation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_3_47

Nikolay V. Danilenko

Anton G. Kirenchev

Abstract. The object of research is vortex formation of gas (liquid) media. The state of the vortex formation issue is determined. The theoretical substantiation of the vortex formation problem is given. The kinematic essence of the gas-dynamic phenomenon of vortex formation is established. Its contradictions are revealed. The working process of vortex formation is established. Efficiency parameters and operating parameters are obtained. The place of vortex formation in the equation of conservation of the energy of gas motion is indicated. A set of factors for the generation of vortex activity of natural and man-made vortex formation has been established. A theorem on vortex formation is proposed. Its consequences and areas of practical application are outlined.

Keywords: vortex formation of gas (liquid) media, factors of generation and activation of vortex formation, workflow of gas (liquid) media, definition of vortex formation, vortex formation theorem, classification of vortex formation.

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Discourse and Text: vectors of research

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_3_74

Vera B. Merkuryeva

Natal’ya S. Novolodskaya

Anna L. Shadrina

Abstract. The article is devoted to the author’s fairy tale for adults in dialect. The authors of the article aim to present and study in this fairy tale discourse the coexistence, mutual influence and joint functioning of the Hessian dialect and the literary German language.  The research material is a fairy tale for adults by Frank Fodderwestje “Dornrösjche un de böse Froschkönisch…”, written by him in the Hessian dialect. The Hessian dialect dominates the fairy tale, and the German literary language clarifies the meaning of dialect words.  The author of the fairy tale includes literary German in the narrative only in cases that are particularly difficult to understand.  The local connectedness of the fairy-tale discourse with the Hessian territory is overcome thanks to literary words, and the fairy tale becomes accessible to all German-speaking readers. Thus, the author of the fairy tale seeks to attract as many readers as possible, including those who do not speak the Hessian dialect.

Keywords: dialect, literary language, fairy-tale discourse, author’s fairy tale, humorous effect.

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DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_3_87

Ekaterina V. Miletova

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the actualization of graphic means in the art discourse; the author focuses on the recurrent use of italics in thematic texts on art. The research material is English-language texts published in The Artist magazine, aimed at professional artists. The author emphasizes the pragmatic potential of graphic means in art discourse; it is aimed at drawing the addressee’s attention to significant pieces of information in the sphere of professional interaction between artists. The results of the research indicate the most common cases of italics’ usage in the communication of artists. Taking into account the semantic and pragmatic features of this corpus of linguistic units, we have identified the following lexical groups: 1) proper names (the name of the artist, the title of the work, the name of the museum, the title of the exhibition, etc.); 2) professional vocabulary (techniques and methods of painting, terms and their definitions, foreign words). Each presented group has its own frequency indicator within the analyzed sample.

Key words: art discourse, discursive markers, sign system, professional communication of artists, graphic means, italics, text, English.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_3_98

Svetlana S. Rogovtsova

Elena A. Pavlenko

Abstract. The article considers the functions of quotations in English printed advertising texts. It provides a summary of Russian and foreign scientists’ works on intertextuality, precedence and precedent phenomena, quotation and its functions, and the features of advertising texts. Advertisement is characterized by brevity, and advertisers resort to various linguistic means, in particular, to quotations, which, due to their complexity, make it possible to express more in fewer words. A new structural type of quotations, fake quotations, is observed; such quotations belong to fictional authors. The study reveals the frequency, sources, and structural characteristics of quotations in advertising texts through intertextual and contextual analysis. In total, six functions of quotations are identified: persuasive, ludic, image-forming, attractive, informative, and delimitative. Persuasive, ludic, and attractive functions occur in advertising text more frequently. The results of the study prove the importance of quotations in order to make advertising texts more impressive and increase the potential marketability of the product.

Keywords: quotation, advertisement, intertextuality, precedence, types of quotation.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_3_111

Irina B. Krivchenko

Irina V. Savina

Abstract. The paper contains analysis of linguistic means employed by the author of an epistolary novel to characterize the personages through their speech. According to the hypothesis at the beginning of the research, the genre of an epistolary novel requires specific means of speech characterization. The result of the analysis of the narrator’s speech in the novel “The Perks of Being a Wallflower” by S. Chbosky proved that syntactic means predominate in the linguistic portrait of a character. The novel consisting of personal letters, the linguistic portrait of the narrator seems to be the most elaborate one. Fragmented dialogues, included into the narrative, serve as the base for the principle of analogy and contrast between the main and minor personages. Linguistic portraits of teenagers in the novel “The Perks of Being a Wallflower” by S. Chbosky are based on the same principle. Typical adolescent speech characterized by elliptical structures, a wide use of slang and even obscene words is opposed to Charlie’s structurally complete speech where he finds it difficult to include colloquial words. As the linguistic portrait of the main character approaches the stereotypical characteristics of teenage speech, he moves to the end of the process of his socialization.

Key words: speech portrait, speech characterization, linguistic means, epistolary novel, literary character, linguistic portrait of a personage.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_3_125

Tatiana I. Semenova

Larisa V. Proskurnina

Abstract. The paper highlights prognostic potential of English analytical mediatexts with the buzz topic Plant based food. Of particular concern in the study is framing in media coverage of what the future of food will look like. The paper considers key role of media narratives in constructing and contesting visions of ‘better’ meat-free food future. Meatless future is predicted to be good for people, animals and the planet. Our analysis reveals linguistic means and construal operations of shaping a better food future forecast with the key focus on the shift towards plant-based eating and its benefits for the health, environment and animals. The paper reveals the prognostic and pragmatic potential of the references to the epistemic authorities, specific statistics and nominal compounds like fake meat and meatless burger in shaping the future of food. The study brings into focus plant food trend forecasting.  The results obtained contribute to the study of discursive control and management of the more responsible food choice of the recipients.

Key words: discursive construal, prognostic potential, mediatext, food forecast, food trend, plant based food, fake meat, meatless future.

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Issues of cognitive linguistics

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_3_142

А. А. Natpit

The subject of the article is the problem of forming the mental lexicon of Tuvan bilinguals. The experience of conducting a free associative experiment among Tuvan bilinguals and Russian monolinguals is presented, as well as the results of a survey on the most frequently used nouns in the speech of Tuvans. For the first part of the experiment, 10 most frequently encountered words in Russian were selected by interviewing Tuvan respondents to monitor the reactions of Tuvan and Russian informants to them. The conclusions are: 1) russian words give access to two mental lexicons at once – Russian and Tuvan; 2) monolinguals are dominated by syntagmatic reactions in Russian, while bilinguals have paradigmatic reactions even in Tuvan; 3) the number of updated links in bilinguals is greater than in monolinguals; 4) some connections among bilinguals are completely identical to those of monolinguals, but they are in the minority.

Key words: bilingualism, associative word content, Tuvan language, stimulus words.

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Cognitive, communicative-pragmatic, stylistic, corpus linguistic studies

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_3_154

Valeriya A. Rayskina

Abstract. This article offers a complex description of various research and analysis possibilities of project MONLOE – innovative digitalized multifunctional  platform composed of texts, documents, and other types of information, devoted to a historical person Michel Montaigne. The research is conducted in the field of corpus and diachronic linguistics, that satisfy modern challenges of the humanities, and that deals with growing trends of digitalization (numérisation), development of search tools and automatic analysis engines. Our particular interest to the project MONLOE is explained by its goals (to systematize and to digitalize a big data of texts) and also by its perspectives (to preserve and de reconstruct the XVIth century documents, archives, manuscripts, to upgrade search and auto-analysis tools). In detail we`ve presented search requests and formulas, various demonstration modes, and analytic possibilities in the six corpora – components of MONLOE: literary texts corpora, fac-similés corpora, Bordeaux edition, documents corpora, multimedia platform, and interactive library model.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, corpus-based analyses, corpora, automatic search, manuscript, TXM, MonLOE, Michel Montaigne.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_3_167

Svetlana Yu. Bogdanova

Ayana B. Chimitova

Abstract. The article deals with the types of opposition relations which exist in the system of English phrasal verbs, and the characteristic features of the oppositions of deadjectival phrasal verbs, such as black out, are analyzed in detail. The difficulties of the description of such opposition relations are caused by the complicated semantic structure of phrasal verbs, consisting of two elements, where each of the elements is a word. Phrasal verbs can have direct, rethought and idiomatic meanings. The joint rethought meaning of the analytical linguistic unit can be formed with the help of a verbal component, a particle, or the whole phrasal verb can be rethought. In the antonymic pairs of the phrasal verbs with the direct or rethought meanings either verbs or spatial particles can make oppositions. The antonymic relations of phrasal verbs with idiomatic meanings do not follow any rules. The example of deadjectival phrasal verbs with the verbal components black, white, light demonstrates the development of meanings of phrasal verbs and the way in which they form antonymic pairs. It is shown that phrasal verbs, formed from the adjectives denoting color, in certain meanings can be treated as antonyms due to their verbal components, while their particles do not usually form oppositions.

Keywords: Phrasal verb, particle, spatial relations, deadjectival verb, opposition relations.

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DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_3_178

Anastasiya V. Kolmogorova

Ekaterina V. Kurilova

Annotation. This article is devoted to the description of speech characteristics of Spanish-speaking commentators’ socionic types. The focus is on the speech reactions of commentators to the news about vaccination against covid-19. The aim of the work is to evaluate the effectiveness of using corpus analysis techniques to identify the formal speech characteristics of socionic types of Internet commentators. The relevance of the research work is due to the fact that the problem of automatic attribution of a text according to the criterion of the psychotype of its author remains relevant today among specialists in the field of mathematical and computational linguistics. The novelty of the work lies in the use of corpus tools and formal metrics for the analysis of Spanish-language comments.

In the course of the work, we used such methods as contextual, stylistic, qualitative, quantitative and corpus analysis (Voyant Tools web application). The analysis made it possible to obtain interpretable data on the differences in the values of three formal parameters – average words per sentence, vocabulary density, readability index – in the comments of the representatives of six socionic types found in the research corpus. In addition, specific lexical units and grammatical constructions are defined for each type.

The main research perspective is the development of an automatic tool for detecting socionic personality types in social networks, which will be of practical importance for marketers and sociologists.

Keywords: socionics, linguistic personality, personatext, linguistic network personality, Internet commentator, psychotype, socionic type, corpus analysis, linguo-socionic modeling, covid-19 vaccination

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Theoretical and practical issues of foreign languages teaching

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_3_195

Inna V. Senina

Vera B. Merkuryeva

Abstract. This article deals with an overview of the terms “educational technology”, the types of their classifications, briefly presents various teaching methods, as well as results of observations in foreign (English) language classes with students at the Irkutsk National Research Technical University at the School of Aircraft Construction, Mechanical Engineering, and Transport. Teachers summarize their long-term experience, compare it with theoretical research on this topic and offer the innovative educational technologies they use, demonstrating their functioning by examples of their lessons. The authors compare the traditional approach to foreign language classes in a technical university and the modern one, which appeared by new requirements for graduates, specialists who speak a foreign language and use it for professional purposes. The authors pay particular attention to a student-centered approach to learning, which involves a change in the teacher’s role setting and the development of students’ competencies necessary for successful professional activity in the modern labor market.

Keywords: Educational techniques and methods, educational technologies, professional competence, social competence, sociocultural competence, classical method, conceptual method, innovative technologies, teaching terminology, debate strategy, discussions, role-playing games.

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Actual problems of education

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_3_215

Zulfiya A. Aksyutina

Abstract. The analysis of scientific publications has shown that forecasting extrapolates trends and patterns of certain phenomena and processes into the future. Socio-pedagogical forecasting has not been properly developed and tested in practice, which is inherent in its inadequate complexity and versatility. An important feature in pedagogical forecasting is optimistic forecasting with the hope of success. Social upbringing remains poorly understood, and its forecasting in scientific research is not carried out. The purpose of the study is to forecast the development of the regional system of social upbringing in the city of Omsk.

The method of expert assessment was used for forecasting. The opinion of 786 experts who work as teachers of higher educational institutions and secondary specialized educational institutions of the city of Omsk was studied. The dynamics of the changes in the social upbringing in Omsk over five years, the dynamics of changes in individual assistance and social experience in the next five years were assessed; the necessary resources to improve social upbringing and the factors influencing the deterioration of the state of social upbringing were identified.

The respondents expressed a number of opinions regarding the ways of development of regional social upbringing. It was noted that it is more dependent on regional specific features. For a more meaningful development of the system of social upbringing, the support of local governments and their involvement in the existing problems in the field of social upbringing is required. The findings of the current study can be used to further model, design and plan the work on social upbringing in the region. The methodology according to which the study was organized may be of interest for conducting similar studies.

Key words: forecasting, expert assessment method, experts, social upbringing, regional system, forecast, futurology.

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