# 4, 2021

Discourse and Text: vectors of research

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_6

Anastasia V. Kolmogorova

Georgii O. Samarkin

Abstract. The paper is devoted to the description of the means and features of the discursive construction of the image of war represented in the antiwar Japanese novel “One Soldier” written by the Japanese author Tayama Katai. The analysis includes a literary concept description algorithm which forms a cognitive basis for the image being constructed.

The research is based on the model of image including a conceptual core, ideological content and pragmatic shell. The analysis of every part of the model allows to describe multifacetedly the image of war.

It is concluded that the conceptual basis of the image has a hierarchical structure and includes the microconcept “war” («戦争» /senso:/), the basic concepts “army” («軍» /gun/) and “competence” («対戦» /taisen/), and the individual concepts “suffering” («悩み» /nayami/) and “memory” («記憶» /kioku/). This conceptual hierarchy results in the discursive basis of the image of war represented as a wound on a society depicting not the good and bad, but the pain and suffering.

Key words: discursive construction, war, Japanese antiwar prose, the Japanese language, literary concept, conceptual analysis.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_21

Аnna А. Litvintceva

Abstract. The article focuses on the peculiarities of irony in the primary and secondary German political discourse. The object of the study is primary and secondary German political discourse. The subject of the study is irony and the language means that express it. The study was based on public oral and written statements by German-speaking politicians, as well as publications on political topics in the international media.  Politicians always manipulate public consciousness through language. Irony is used in politicians’ speech to increase its expressiveness and to increase its impact on the audience. To monitor and analyze the results of the use of irony, the author emphasizes the necessity to divide political discourse into primary and secondary and offers its own vision of these concepts. Recently, in modern political discourse, the significance of such a term as political correctness has increased. Politicians often violate the laws of political correctness, and their controversial statements cause public outcry. This article examines examples of such ironic statements by politicians and examples of broadcast of these judgments by representatives of the media. The results of the study demonstrate the deliberate use of irony by German politicians in their speech.

Key words: irony, primary political discourse, secondary political discourse, impact, political correctness.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_33

Elvira M. Ryanskaya

Yuliya V. Shevchenko

Abstract. The paper is devoted to studying the specificities of the authorial communication strategies implementation in two different types of discourse such as scientific and popular science discourse. The objective of the study is to compare a strategic organization of the texts written by the same author within scientific and popular science discourse. The possibility of such an analysis is due to the involvement of scientists in the promotion and popularization of scientific achievements alongside the publication of the research results in scientific journals.

The main approach of the research is focused on the interpretation of the term communication strategy as a particular setting of communicative tasks in accordance with the situation and the participants of the communication. Furthermore, a key factor in differentiating the strategies of scientific and popular science discourse is a number of characteristics of the scientific knowledge recipient. Particular attention is paid to the issue of the interaction between scientific and popular science discourse. The comparative analysis of the publications made it possible to identify differences in the ways of implementing similar communication strategies in scientific and popular science texts, to establish the main trends in the use of strategic transformations. The results of the study confirm the importance of the addressee’s factor and the level of their knowledge in selecting the most appropriate communicative tactics, techniques and strategies.

Keywords: authorial strategies, communicative strategies and tactics, scientific discourse, popular science discourse, addressee.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_48

Tatiana I. Semenova

Daria A. Skulimovskaya

Abstract. The subject matter of the paper is the speech act of warning and its communicative function and pragmatic potential in English political discourse. The theoretical background of the research is a set of principles and assumptions of cognitive pragmatics to the study of the semantic and pragmatic properties of the speech act. Of central concern in the study is the issue of illocutionary potential of the speech act of warning.  The study reveals syncretic nature of the speech act of warning that has both an assertive and a directive use. The paper brings into focus the issue of the complex hybrid nature of the speech act of warning.  The study discusses focus shift mechanism as a cognitive operation involved in the illocutionary potential of the speech act of warning .The paper considers pragmatic potential of the speech act of warning in maintaining power relations in political discourse. The results obtained may be helpful for further study of illocutionary semantics of speech acts.

Key words: speech act of warning, illocutionary semantics, assertive illocutionary point, directive illocutionary point, hybrid speech act, syncretic speech act, focus shift.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_64

Darya M. Tataurova

Abstract. In the article analysis of a special concept ПОДДАННЫЙ was provided. The concept is considered as one of the basic parts of the Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire that is a pretextual base of Russian constitutional intertext. This type of intertext is viewed as a constantly modified synthetic product, which includes legal and political discursive categories. The concept ПОДДАННЫЙ [SUBLECT] is a discursive predecessor of its modern quasisynonym ГРАЖДАНИН [CITIZEN].  The term «подданный» is a hyperonym reflecting political and law linguistic picture of the world during the historical period of the Russian Empire and characterized by lexico-semantic element «allegiance». A complicated structure of the lingvocognitive category correlating with the term given is studied by means of prototypical approach that makes possible to determine components and their position. Category ПОДДАННЫЙ includes several hyponyms with the same name reflecting the variety of a political and law status of a person. This variety allows to describe the correlating term as a polysemic one.

Key words: subject, intertext, constitutional intertext, significatum, significative feature, referent, prototypical approach.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_77

Artyom A. Khabarov

Abstract. The article is devoted to the linguistic analysis of the cognitive and communicative mechanism of indoctrination of target-objects in the paradigm of information and psychological warfare initiated by the collective West, led by the United States, with the aim of destroying the integral potential of the opposing states by non-combat means. The author’s concept focuses on language as an instrument of ideological influence carried out at the macro level in the format of interdiscourse, explicated in the spheres of social communication in the form of polarized discursive practices. Using the methods of semantic-structural, conceptual and pragmatic analysis, the author reveals the specifics of the verbalization of communication strategies used for mental influence and speech stimulation in the English-language discourse, identifies the lexical means of secondary nomination and ideological markers of linguocognitive manipulation. As a result of the study, it is concluded that the forms and methods of modeling the interdiscursive environment in the global media, methods of ideological polarization of speech, as well as the specifics of their communicative use for the purpose of manipulating consciousness identify the interdiscourse of information and psychological warfare as a type of conciental weapon.

Keywords: interdiscourse, information and psychological warfare, communication strategy, means of secondary nomination, ideological polarization, linguocognitive manipulation.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_96

Valeria A. Erman

Anastasia S. Zvonareva

Abstract. This article is devoted to the peculiarities of the realization of the categories of the addresser and the addressee in the texts of online movie reviews. The purpose of the article is to systematize and linguistically analyze the means of the addresser’s and the addressee’s nomination and their interaction explicated in the German-language texts of online movie reviews. The article defines the specific features of the secondary genre of the online review, due to the adaptation of the classical review to the conditions of the online media space. The main linguistic means of the addresser’s and the addressee’s nomination in the texts of German-language online movie reviews are identified and the peculiarities of actualization in the identified nominations of age, gender, cultural, educational and professional characteristics of communication participants and their role in the realization of the reviewer’s main communicative strategy are analyzed. The novelty of the research lies in the identification and linguistic description of the main regularities of the addresser’s and the addressee’s interaction in the texts of online movie reviews, which include self-nomination, segmentation of the target audience, reducing the distance between the addresser and the addressee and modeling of “live” communication with the addressee.

Keywords: online movie review, internet critic, users’ review, addresser, addressee, the addresser’s and the addressee’s nomination, the addresser’s and the addressee’s interaction

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_109

Svetlana Yu. Bogdanova

Semen I. Popov

Abstract. The article deals with the analysis of the possibility of referring the names of social networks, online services, messengers, video hosting platforms, etc. to the category of proper names. Russian and foreign linguists’ opinions on the problem of attributing commercial names to proper names or common names is presented. The names of services in the language system belong to pragmatonyms, the subcategory of proper names. Their characteristic features, such as word-building models, are revealed. The four main word-building models are: blending, metaphorical extension, creating new words which sound like English words, abbreviation. Linguistic creativity required from those who make new commercial names rests on the senses which the creators of services want to convey. Metonymy plays the main role in the development of meanings of new words, which takes place according to the scheme ‘company name – name of the service – personal account – message’, where some of the positions may remain empty. Verbs which derive from the names of services are usually capitalized.

Keywords: Online services, social networks, messengers, onomastics, proper name, common name, commercial name, pragmatonym.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_123

Ksenia S. Kardanova-Biryukova

Abstract. The paper looks into new ways of designing and conducting a psycholinguistic experiment through the use of modern digital tools. It is a well-known fact that psycholinguistics first appeared as a science aimed at resolving research issues by means of an experiment. As a result, it focused on developing various experimental tools and approaches to process the experimental data obtained. Yet, as of today, there are various digital tools which can assist in conducting such research and facilitate some of the procedures involved. The author analyses a number of experiments run in person or as a team with PhD students to identify such problems and suggest ways of adopting digital tools to overcome them. Central to the research are online platforms for conducting large-scale social experiments and statistical packages for processing the experimental data. The findings of the current analysis suggest that digital tools may be instrumental in helping experiments run by Russian researchers stand up to the international academic standards and bringing such experiments which are characterized by non-trivial designs, novel objectives and consistent experimental logic to the fore on the international scale.

Keywords: psycholinguistics, experimental research, digital tools, statistical analysis, design of the experiment.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_136

Natalya A. Prom

Abstract. The article proposes the problem of taking into account the addressee’s factor by the author in the media discourse from the standpoint of linguistics and media rhetoric in particular. Modern media discourse offers the audience a large amount of material, the task of which is to purposefully influence the consciousness of the audience, and this influence is growing. The success of this impact is ensured by a number of factors. It seems necessary to identify communicative characteristics of a media text that provide understanding and trust of the audience to the author of the facts proposed. This is seen as the purpose of his work the article is devoted to. The research has shown that the impact of the text that takes into account the axiological picture of the audience’s world is effective. There are some examples considered that illustrate this position and demonstrate the manipulative mechanisms used by the media discourse generators to achieve their goals. Of particular interest is an example that reflects a radical change in the values the authors of media messages appeal to, depending on the changing expediency. No less important role in the attractiveness and effectiveness of the media text for the audience is played by rhetorical effects. The author has identified the main of them, i.e. the effect of live communication, the effect of involvement, the effect of curiosity, the effect of surprise and the effect of guesswork. Language ways to achieve these effects are demonstrated in the article.

Keywords: media discourse, media text, addressee, pragmatics, communication, rhetorical effect, adaptation, values.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_149

Innokentiy N. Novgorodov

Abstract. Based on the use of the experience of previous systematizations and the achievements of the new scientific paradigm, the author supports the adherents of the polynomial classification of the Turkic languages. Earlier, a separate Yakut classification type (taxon) was established along with the Chuvash, Oguz, Karluk-Uygur, Kyrgyz-Kypchak, and Uryankhai. Moreover, taxa arose in the Pra-Türkic language. In the Yakut language, the main stages are revealed: 1) the Pra-Türkic time: up to the 1st century BC, Mongolia, the emergence of the Yakut classification type; 2) ancient Turkic time: from the 1st century BC, Mongolia before the 10th century A.D., Circumbaikal region, the ancient Yakut language; 3) Middle Ages: from the 10th century, the Cirkumbaikal region to the 17th century, Yakutia, the Middle Yakut language; 4) New time: from the 17th century, Yakutia to the modern Republic of Sakha within the Russian Federation, the Yakut language.

Key words: Yakut identity, genetic polynomial classification, the Leipzig-Jakarta list, haplotype, Caucasoid genetic admixture, periodization of the Yakut language.

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Personality and media: humanitarian studies in media education

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_180

Galina V. Mikhaleva

Abstract. The article discusses the technologies and methods of conducting university classes with the elements of film education that contribute to promoting students’ civic engagement based on Russian social drama films. The main research method is a critical analysis of audiovisual media texts about acute social problems of our time, including the analysis of the social stereotypes representations, character analysis, plot analysis and ethical analysis of media representations. Film education allows one to meet some specific educational objectives when viewing and analysing social drama films in the student audience, which are as follows: developing university students’ critical skills in analysing audiovisual media texts, including social stereotypes; teaching students to reasonably defend their life and civic positions, and attitudes to various social challenges of our time; cultivating spiritual and moral values, awareness of national and state identity among young people; fostering civic culture and responsibility; encouraging models of constructive behaviour in various difficult life situations, including problematic and conflict situations; inspiring a strong feeling of rejection of antisocial and disruptive behaviour among young people.

Keywords: civic engagement, civic culture, social drama, university students, film education, audiovisual media text, social stereotype, media representation, civic education, civic competence, critical analysis.

The reported study was funded by RFBR and EISR, project number 21-011-31036.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_194

Irina V. Chelysheva

Abstract. The article deals with the problems of using educational, developmental and educational tasks of media education in a university environment. The author presents a theoretical review of research on the topic, analyzes methodological approaches in working with students, contributing to the development of civic engagement, the formation of civic consciousness, a sense of patriotism based on Russian military patriotic feature films of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

Analysis of cinematic material includes the study of key media educational concepts: “media agencies”, “media categories”, “media language”, “media technologies”, “media representations”, “media audiences”. Also, the examples of creative assignments are presented, the use of which is possible in lectures and practical classes in a student audience.

The article also presents a short filmography of cinematographic works of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

Key words: media, media education, art cinematography, patriotism, civic engagement, media text analysis, students.

*The reported study was funded by RFBR and EISR, project number21-011-31036 «Formation of university students’ civic engagement based on the material of national art cinema».

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Actual issues of vocational pedagogy

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_207

Liliya R. Ziyazieva

Abstract. The article considers the influence of life values on the formation of the orientation-motivational component of students’ independent work through benchmarking-technology by M. Rokich’s method. The terminal and instrumental concepts of learners are defined, and the influence of life values on the formation of the orientation-motivational component is proved. It is shown that the formation of the personality of students, their system of values, learning motivation are influenced not only by society, but also by the institute of family, community, and events happening in the world. The author considers the orientation-motivational component together with life priorities as one of the components of the pedagogical model of university student’s readiness for independent work using benchmarking-technology and finds their interrelation and influence on the formation of students’ preparedness for independent work. As well as the influence of life priorities and the influence of the mentality of nations on the motivational component.

The orientation-motivational component of students’ independent work is aimed at students’ awareness of a specific goal in their self-study activities, focused on performing individual work through benchmarking-technology, providing additional tasks and topics focused on future professional activities.

Key words: level of formation, orientation-motivational component, benchmarking-technology, independent work, life values, mentality of nations.

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Issues of Philosophy

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_224

Alexander Vladimirovich Egorov

Abstract. The article examines the concept of culture as otherness of an absolute idea in G. V. F. Hegel’s philosophical system. The author considers G. V. F. Hegel’s philosophical system in terms of panrationalism and as a brilliant cultural phenomenon of the 19th century.

Keywords: philosophy, system, idealism, panlogism, panrationalism, logic, dialectics, process, connection, being, culture.

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