# 1, 2023

To the 100th anniversary of the national civil aviation

Oleg N. Astrakhantsev

Oleg A. Gorbachev

Abstract. The article highlights issues related to the history of the formation and development of the national civil aviation. The main points related to the development of aviation and aviation educations in Irkutsk are considered. The socio-economic and political conditions with the main stages of the national civil aviation development are shown. Information about aviation educational institutions training personnel for civil aviation is provided.

Keywords: civil aviation, air fleet, aircraft, aviation equipment, Irkutsk, aviation personnel, pilot, air lines.

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Air transport security

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_27

Nikolai S. Khersonsky

Ludmila G. Bolshedvorskaya

Abstract. The authors develop and show the practical applicability of mathematical models for assessing the wear of equipment. According to the property of fixed assets, which equipment belongs to, it has to be replaced as a result of wear and tear. In this connection, the relevance of the conducted research is caused by the search of models for assessing their state at a given moment of time. The complexity of developing such models is due to the fact that the characteristics of equipment performance are random values and random functions. When planning the work of the enterprise it is necessary to take into account the statistical characteristics of the survivability of the equipment. Only in this way it is possible to foresee in advance the amount of renewable equipment, the order of preventive maintenance and the terms in which equipment should be replaced to ensure uninterrupted implementation of the production program without excessive investment expenditures of the enterprise.

Key words:  mathematical models, wear and replacement of equipment, optimization.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_42

Elena I. Trusova

Alexandra L. Rybalkina

Nikolay I. Nikolaykin

Abstract. The results of the analysis of negative aviation events caused by difficult weather conditions are presented; it is statistically confirmed that this predominantly occurs with helicopters. The influence of environmental factors on the piloting of aircraft is overviewed, the mechanism of such influence is explained; an analysis of earlier studies is given. The possibility to reduce the piloting risks by preliminary assessment of the adverse weather risks is shown. For the planned helicopter flights, a method of preliminary compensation of environmental influence is proposed.

Keywords: weather conditions, risk assessment methodology, flight safety, helicopter.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_57

Sergey M. Krivel

Anastasia A. Lebedeva

Alexandra B. Spasibko

Abstract. The work is devoted to the creation of universal software for the development of computer models of systems that allow studying the parameters and characteristics of the reliability of systems based on the structural scheme of reliability, and the methodological principles of using the proposed software in the analysis of the operational properties of systems in their design. The software is an application (Toolbox) of the Simulink dynamic modeling system. Algorithms and programs are unified, grouped by purpose, designed to form mathematical and computer models of complex structural reliability systems. The proposed software allows performing a computational experiment to analyze reliability characteristics and to evaluate the effectiveness of measures to improve the reliability of technical and technological systems; it is enough to simply modify mathematical models; organize a software interface; process simulation results. The features of the software make it possible to effectively change both the characteristics and reliability parameters of the system elements and the structure of the interrelationships of the system elements from the point of view of the reliability of the entire system as a whole. The paper provides an example of using the software.

Keywords: SIMULINK, MATLAB, reliability, methods for calculating reliability parameters, reliability block diagrams, reliability of technical systems, reliability of technological systems, reliability of machines.

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Aviation radio communication, radiolocation, radio navigation and methods of their operation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_77

Muslim A. Mezhetov

Boris V. Lezhankin

Anna I. Tikhova

Ulyana S. Vakhrusheva 

Abstract. The paper considers the use of LoRa technology in the data transfer system for performing aircraft position-fixing by means of the network of multilateration ground stations. The urgency of the problem is that the methods used for transferring data do not meet the requirements for safety and security of the transmitted information so such systems are not protected against unauthorized access. The information transmitted is strategically important for performing air traffic management tasks on the territory of the Russian Federation. Unauthorized access can result in intercepting and spoofing the coordinate information of aircraft location. This is possible only in exceptional circumstances which lead to reduction in flight safety and transition of flight incidents to flight accidents. The security of transmitted information can be improved by applying noise-like signals which ensure better security indexes of transmitted signals and possess higher jamming resistance. A new LoRa technology of transferring data is widespread nowadays. The technology is based on the linear frequency modulation which has been used in radar systems for several decades.  The paper presents the algorithm of operating the multilateration data transfer system and its hardware-in-the-loop simulation implemented as a virtual device.

Key words: Linear frequency modulation, multilateration surveillance system, LoRa technology.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_98

Dmitry Vladimirovich Khazanov

Boris Valentinovich Lezhankin

Vyacheslav Vladimirovich Erokhin

Abstract. In civil aviation, an urgent and important task is to provide air traffic participants with uninterrupted radio communication. Satellite communication is a global mobile network covering the entire surface of the Earth, including polar regions, which provides a two-way data and voice communication exchange. An analysis of the principles of functioning of satellite communication systems (SCS) showed that the determination of energy characteristics is of great importance. Energy characteristics in satellite communication channels and the level of interference determine SCS operational capabilities and quality indicators. One of the critical factors that determine the effectiveness of the SCS functioning is the conditions for the propagation and absorption of radio waves, including ionospheric phenomena, which are not yet fully understood, and this determines the research relevance.

This article is devoted to theoretical studies of the ionospheric plasma by the methods of physical kinetics to increase the energy potential of the radio links of a satellite communication system.

Keywords: physical plasma kinetics, energy relations, satellite communication systems, Maxwell distribution function, ionospheric phenomena.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_118

Alexander P. Plyasovskih

Evgeny A. Rubtsov

Andrey S. Kalintsev

Vladislav Y. Davidenko

Abstract. Proposed the method for confirming ADS-B data based on the analysis of information about the aircraft altitude and atmospheric parameters. To confirm the reliability of ADS-B messages, proposed to compare the geometric height obtained from satellite navigation system data with the height calculated for the real atmosphere (based on information from the meteorological service on pressure and temperature). To implement the proposed methodology, required the following input data: pressure at the level of the weather station, temperature at the level of the weather station and at flight altitudes, and data on geometric and barometric altitudes transmitted in the ADS message. It has been established that the greatest error in the calculations is introduced by the temperature at the aircraft flight altitude. In order to reduce the influence of errors in determining the temperature, proposed to use data from weather balloons. With developed methodology, a calculation was performed using real altitude data transmitted in the ADS-B message and the required data from the meteorological service. Messages received from the ADS-B ground station NS-1A manufactured by JSC VNIIRA, which is installed at the Mezen airfield, were used. The developed methodology is proposed to be used to confirm ADS-B data at regional aerodromes with low flight intensity.

Key words: ADS-B, weather balloon, barometric altitude, geometric altitude, pressure, temperature, Laplace formula, ISA.

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Avionics, aircraft electrical systems, aircraft navigation complexes and methods for their exploitation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_134

Alexander L. Kivokurtsev

Oleg A. Sokolov

Alexander Yu. Yurin

Abstract. The article presents the experience of technical operation of the air data inertial reference system (ADIRS) both on real aircraft in airlines and on a procedure trainer during the “Simulator training” practice at a university. The features of the ADIRS construction are considered, its central role as the main source of flight and navigation information in the composition of the integrated onboard complex is shown. The main method of technical operation of the system under consideration is “on-condition” operation, i.e. operation until a dangerous failure occurs that can affect flight safety.

Through full-scale experiments based on the analysis of the system performance in real conditions typical failures are shown, emergency situations and possibility of system reconfiguration are considered. In the presence of a procedure trainer it is possible through experiments to study the features of the system operation, to develop a methodology for identifying and eliminating some failures.

The article proposes to use a continuous training system, consisting of three stages, when training aviation specialists. The first stage is a discussion of the construction features, the experience of technical operation of the systems under study at a local scientific and practical conference. The second is performing practical tasks for the systems under study on a procedure trainer. The third is conducting the technical operation work on the real aircraft systems.

Keywords: Air Data Inertial Reference System (ADIRS), Air Data Reference (ADR), Inertial Reference (IR), strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), technical operation experience, “on-condition” technical operation, aviation specialists’ training, continuous training system.

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Transportation process management

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_155

Raisa M. Petruneva

Abstract. The article analyzes the results of two independent sociological surveys of students of Volgograd State Technical University and other major state universities of the city. The purpose of the research is to identify the problems of urban public transport and study students’ requests for this urban life sphere. This problem affects not only the current students’ interests, but also applicants just making their professional path choice. And quite often this choice is predetermined by transport availability of higher education institution. Today, Volgograd students make up almost a quarter of the active working-age population, so their requests for transport services are quite logical and legitimate. Such research has not been conducted in Volgograd before. According to the results of the study it was determined that most of the students have to get to the university with transfers, and the updated today transport scheme of the city creates even more difficulties in movement due to increasing time and financial costs.

Keywords: urban public transportation, students’ opinions on transportation, unmanned city bus.

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Discourse and Text: vectors of research

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_166

Olga A. Boginskaya

Abstract. Political discourse is not only an information environment, but also an interactive space which necessitates the study of metadiscourse as an effective rhetorical strategy. The purpose is to study metadiscourse categories in the genre of the President’s New Year’s address as one of the genres of political discourse. To achieve this goal, the metadiscourse categories used by the Russian president are identified and their communicative functions are determined; the frequency of markers within the metadiscourse categories is determined. New Year’s addresses posted on the official website of the President of Russia were used as research materials. The taxonomy of metadiscourse markers proposed by K. Hyland was adopted as the methodological basis. The study identified five types of metadiscourse markers (boosters, hedges, attitude markers, self-mentions and engagement markers) used by the President in order to construct an effective dialogue with an audience. In the discursive space of the New Year’s address, these metadiscourse markers serve the following communicative functions: showing confidence in the truth of a proposition, manifesting solidarity with an audience, mitigating categoricalness, showing emotions, engaging the addressee in a dialogue, accepting personal responsibility for the utterances produced. The predominance of boosters and attitude markers that increase the illocutionary force, demonstrating the addresser’s confidence in the truth of the propositions, and explicating the speaker’s affective stance, indicate Putin’s desire to construct an image of a self-confident leader and establish an emotional connection with the audience. The results obtained indicate the need to study metadiscourse categories as crucial elements of political communication. Intercultural, intracultural or diachronic studies of metadiscourse in the New Year’s addresses of the presidents seem promising.

Key words: President’s New Year’s address, political discourse, metadiscourse, hedging, boosting, self-reference, attitude marker.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_181

Tatiana I. Semenova

Abstract. Linguistic creativity is viewed as a cognitive and discursive phenomenon. The paper discusses creative language use in discursive construal of future food vision in English media. Of central concern in the study is the issue of how the creative potential of the language system is realized in the process of alternative construal of the future food vision in the English media discourse. The study considers cognitive operations of conceptual integration, focus shift involved in alternative construal of fake meat products in English media discourse. The author highlights the issue that the concept FAKE MEAT is a way of conceptualizing food made from plants with the appearance of meat thus being like meat and being different from meat. The study brings into focus the violation of the language norm as potential resource for creativity. The paper reveals pragmatic potential of the conceptual blends like meatless meat and fake meat in shaping health and environmental benefits of a meat-free food style in media discourse. The results obtained may be helpful for further research into the linguistic realization of creativity in media discourse.

Kew words: alternative construal of the world, lingvocreativity, nomination, world-building model, conceptual integration, mental model, focus shift.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_195

Nadezhda N. Kazydub

Anastasia E. Bazarova

Abstract. The article explores some methods of actualizing one of the legitimation strategies, namely, authorization, in the English language interpretative discourse. As an example of such a discourse the interpretation of the ancient Indian text “Bhagavad-gita” suggested by the translator and commentator is studied. The article features a number of categories used for authorization in this discourse and outlines methods of actualizing the authorization strategy: using modal operators and precedent names, metaphorization, analogy.

Keywords: linguistic interpretation, axiological strategies, values legitimation, authorization, Bhagavad-gita.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_206

Ludmila N. Seliverstova

Nikita A. Fedorov

Abstract. During the period of active globalization of human communication, its pragmalinguistic aspect, namely, the person speaking as the center of communicative activity and the speech act as the object of pragmalinguistic study is of particular interest to researchers. This article presents the results of a study of the speech behavior of individual German-speaking authors-mediacritics according to the speech strategy of «the author’s formation of the recipient’s attitude to the speech event» based on publications on the spread of a new coronavirus infection published in journals and on the Internet portals “DER SPIEGEL” and “Neue Züricher Zeitung” in the period 2020-2022. On the basis of the results obtained, it was possible to identify some personal qualities of authors-mediacritics, most of which are distinguished by objectivity, a critical attitude to reality, decisiveness, an independent opinion and impartiality.

Key words: pragmalinguistics, speech behavior, speech strategy of hidden influence, speech portrait, media discourse, media criticism, german language.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_221

Liu Qiqi

Abstract. Aggression as a linguocultural phenomenon that manifests itself at all levels of human activity, including the Internet environment, whose anonymity increases the aggression degree and stimulates network users’ creative abilities on the basis of precedent phenomena. The relevance of the topic is due to the need to identify the correlation between speech aggression and precedent phenomena in the Internet space on the material of the Chinese language. The ways of manifestation of precedence in this environment are insufficiently studied. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and describe aggressive communication in the Chinese-language Internet, with particular attention to precedence as a factor of aggression in the net community. This article examines the phenomenon of precedence over the aggressive Internet communication by the material of the Chinese microblog Sina Weibo. Research method of this article is discourse analysis. The author investigates 4 types of precedent phenomena and ways of manifestation of precedence in the mentioned discourse. The main conclusions of the article are that precedent phenomena are one of the most important components of the Chinese-language aggressive Internet communication, precedence as an important factor of aggressive discourse in the Chinese Internet environment is expressed in two ways: by full and transformed citations.

Keywords: precedence, precedent phenomena, aggressive discourse, Internet communication, citation, Chinese language.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_234

Larisa G. Vikulova

Olga I. Korolenko

Irina V. Makarova

Abstract. The article deals with the problem of the digital reputation of the scientific community on the example of the website of the French Academy, through which the reputation of an authoritative institution is formed. It is noted that the trust and reputation of the Academy are created at the expense of scientific achievements, which since the XVII century, in particular, the French Academy has received the privilege and exclusive right to publish the works of its members on the basis of its own decisions, without censorship. It is proved that the consequence of such an innovation was intra-institutional censorship and the development of the concept of “scientific reputation”, when the main regulator are the concepts of self-censorship and the honor of a scientist. It is noted that the reputation of a member of the French Academy, represented on its website, is not only the fame, scientific recognition of the academician among colleagues, but also a guarantee of the reliability of his own statements or the statements of those who highly value him in society. It is emphasized that an important component of the identity of the scientific community, including in the diachronic projection, is its image portrait, formed on the website of the French Academy, which reflects the activities and value orientations of the status scientific institution.

Keywords: digital reputation, scientific community, French academy, website, identity, image.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_251

Vera B. Merkuryeva

Natal’ya S. Novolodskaya

Abstract. The object of the article is mostly modern german humorous fairy tales for adults in dialect. Thoughts on the language, clarification of language points, comments on some lexemes, grammatical and stylistic phenomena are typical for all german-speaking writers working in different genres. A modern author’s fairy tale as a type of text also reflects the interest of its authors in certain linguistic points. The article analyzes examples of metalanguage, metacommunication in dialect about dialect, as well as in some cases about literary or foreign-language inclusions.  Various pragmatic effects created by metalanguage passages within the textotype of the fairy tale are studied.

Keywords: dialect, standard language, author’s fairy tale for adults, metalanguage, metacommunication, humor.

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