# 3, 2021

Air transport security

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_6

Ljudmila G. Bolshedvorskaya

Nikolaj Dmitrievich Koryagin

Abstract. The availability of IT educational resources for obtaining new and additional professional knowledge has become increasingly relevant in recent years. This is due to the fact that the use of expert systems opens up a series of advantages: expansion of geographical and temporal possibilities; unlimited availability; increasing the intensity of training; optimization of the acquisition and transfer of knowledge. At the same time, there is an urgent need to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of expert systems when assessing the level of qualifications of specialists who ensure flight safety (FS) in civil aviation. Currently, depending on the field of activity, the concepts of efficiency and effectiveness are interpreted in different ways. More often than not, performance reflects the degree to which a planned result has been achieved. Efficiency is the comparison of the result with the cost of achieving it. The practice of using points and ratings to assess the training of safety oversight inspectors in the format of using expert systems, as shown by the results of a previous study, reflects only the effectiveness and does not provide an opportunity to compare the learning processes from the standpoint of the effectiveness of their implementation. In this regard, the purpose of this work is to develop a new evaluation mechanism that combines the effectiveness and efficiency of the use of expert systems. This explains the relevance of the presented work.

Key words: competence, civil aviation, expert systems.

*Publication was prepared within the framework of project No. 19-08-00028, supported by a grant from the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research (RFFI).

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Aviation radio communication, radiolocation, radio navigation and methods of their operation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_14

Oleg Nikolaevich Skrypnik

Roman Olegovich Arefyev

Natalya Gennadyvna Arefyeva (Astrakhanceva)

Tatyana Yuryevna Portnova

Abstract. The authors study accuracy characteristics (dilution of preсision) of an integrated navigation-and-time field in the terminal area created by GLONASS with its mobile pseudolite augmentation. A mobile pseudolite is placed onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The purpose of the article is optimization of UAV flight path which will provide the best aircraft positioning accuracy. The problem of finding an optimal track for the UAV was solved using Hooke-Jeeves method for an aircraft approaching along a flexible track. The article presents the results of the conducted experiments as the UAV optimal flight paths and their charts built according to DOP values for cases of using stationary and mobile pseudolites. Practical recommendations on the choice of optimization criteria are given, and the conditions for using a mobile pseudolite placed on board an unmanned aerial vehicle are determined.

Keywords: pseudolite, mobile pseudolite, unmanned aerial vehicle, Position Dilution of Precision, GLONASS, optimization of flight trajectory, integrated navigation and time field.

* This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 19-08- 00010 A).

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_27

Nikolai A. Ponomarev

Abstract. The article deals with some theoretical foundations, regulatory legal acts concerning aspects of functioning of an automated control system. The article describes some aspects of operation of the current automated dispatch control system in the city of Omsk and the Omsk region. The characteristics of the served route network in municipal and inter-municipal communication are given. The main parties and their relationships involved in the operation of the automated dispatching control system are described. The article presents some aspects that arise in the context of implementation of state and municipal contracts for regular passenger and baggage transportation on regular transportation routes in the city of Omsk and the Omsk region in accordance with Federal Law No. 44-FZ. The aspects reflecting the practical experience of operation in accordance with the composition of the automated dispatching control system are presented. The article also describes some aspects that arise during the operation of on-board navigation and communication terminals, software, dispatching support for regular traffic, the functioning of communications and information transmission systems, informing passengers about the process of regular traffic. Aspects of functioning of the automated fare payment system, regulatory legal acts regulating the issues of fare payment on the territory of the city of Omsk are considered. The equipment that ensures functioning of these systems is considered.

Keywords: automated, dispatching, management, passenger, automobile, transportation.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_44

Innokentiy N. Novgorodov

Lyubov Z. Zaksor

Abstract. The article discusses a new scientific paradigm due to interdisciplinary research, including the modern achievements of comparative historical linguistics and population genetics. Thus, in Germany, the Leipzig-Jakarta list was established in order to classify the compared idioms, which will take into account both the tree model (divergence) and the facts of borrowing languages (convergence). This approach is used in establishing the classification status of the Nanai language based on the study of the Leipzig-Jakarta list and genetic data. The study of the verbs of the Leipzig-Jakarta list, the features of the Tungus-Manchu languages, taking into account the data of the genetics of the Manchus and Nanai, an overview of the processes of divergence and convergence (mixing, hybridization) in the field of language and identity against the background of the challenges of globalization and the scientific and technological revolution of the modern world, modernization and transformation of the traditional societies allow us to conclude that the Nanai language in genetic classification reveals a greater affinity to the closely related languages (idioms) of the Evenki and Udege than to the Manchu language. Thus, all taxa of the Evenki, Udege and Nanai are opposed to the Manchu. This circumstance forms the position on the binary system of modern Tungus-Manchu languages, which, on the one hand, includes taxa of the Evenki, Udege and Nanai languages, on the other hand, the Manchu language.

Key words: genetic classification, comparative studies, population genetics, stable vocabulary, haplogroup, Tungus-Manchu languages and peoples, Nanai language.

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Issues of cognitive linguistics

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_72

Tatiana I. Semenova

Anna S. Ishenina

Abstract. The theoretical background of the research is a set of principles and assumptions of cognitive linguistics to the study of the interrelation of linguistic and cognitive structures. The goal of the paper is to consider linguistic conceptualization of mental imagery. Linguocognitive approach to mental verbs as mental representations enables to highlight the complexity of the semantic structure of imagination predicates. The paper brings into focus the issue of the categorical status of the linguistic phenomenon of imagination. It is argued that imagination is structured in the language as a modus category in which the role of the cognizing subject is fixed. The authors claim that modus of imagination represents a specific knowledge structure of the formation of mental images of objects, situations, and states of affairs in the mind of a cognizing subject. The findings obtained may be helpful for further study of the role of language in providing access to cognitive structures and to understanding how human mind works.

Key words: imagination, knowledge structure, mental representation, mental image, linguistic conceptualization, categorical status, modus.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_87

Anastasia E. Muravieva

Ekaterina S. Muchkina

Abstract. In this article, the authors analyze the metaphors used to communicate one of the most important processes in human life – the process of learning – in the pedagogical Internet discourse. They conclude that this type of discourse features five dominant metaphors: LEARNING IS EATING, LEARNING IS A JOURNEY, LEARNING IS CLIMBING A MOUNTAIN, LEARNING IS BUILDING A PUZZLE, LEARNING IS BUILDING A HOUSE. The article will primarily benefit metaphor scholars and might also be relevant to anyone with an interest in the representation of different aspects of education.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor, education, learning, pedagogical discourse.

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Discourse and Text: vectors of research

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_103

Maria N. Guz

Natalia V. Pigina

Tatiana V. Morozova

Abstract. The article brings into focus different approaches to studying small-sized public directive texts, which appeared in public areas in Germany to regulate people’s behavior during the 2020 COVID pandemic.

The article studies the major themes of these polycode texts, analyses the correlation between verbal and non-verbal components of the examined texts, describes peculiarities of the non-verbal component, such as color, font and picture image, defines the ways of foregrounding semantically determining elements of the texts.

Particular emphasis is made on characteristics of the addressee and the sender.

The authors point out the characteristic feature of these texts to “save face” on the part of the addressee when the sender of the message puts forward peremptory requirements in the situation of temporary limitation of civil rights and freedoms.

The article studies both direct and indirect strategies of inducement as well as methods tactics allowing these strategies to be most effective and contributing to diminishing the personality-restraining impact of the texts on the addressee.

Furthermore, the article analyzes various means of expressing inducement in the studied texts, such as the infinitive, imperative and infinitive sentence, and draws conclusions about the prevailing forms in the analyzed texts.

Key-words: small-sized public directive text, polycode text, non-verbal component, “face” of the addressee, prescriptive texts, strategies of direct and indirect inducement, ways of expressing inducement, the category of inducement, linguistic landscape, COVID pandemic.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_130

Georgii V. Samorodin

Abstract. The present paper touches upon the means of verbalization of emergencies in the discourse of German media. An attempt of systematizing the field structure description thereof, based on the results of the quantitative and statistical analysis of various means of verbalization implementing rate, is being made. The main task of the study is to identify the most and least frequent lexical and semantic units of the eight microfields identified as parts of the lexical-semantic field “emergency” in the discourse of German media (natural cataclysms, negligence, accident, delinquency, political motive, radicalism, pandemic, technogenic catastrophe), and the subsequent construction of visualization in the form of an orbital model of each of them, indicating the central and peripheral elements, universal and specific linguistic units. The work also makes an assumption about the possible reasons for the use of certain vocabulary, in particular, it touches on the aspect of “trendiness” and stereotyping of the course of certain events and phenomena described in the media, taking into account their value for various types of social interaction, and also establishes intra-field connections between the central and peripheral elements of microfields based on the analysis of the occurrence of the same lexical-semantic units in all of the microfields.

Key words: media discourse, emergency, field theory, mediatext, lexical semantics, means of verbalization

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_151

Lyubov A. Nefedova

Abstract. The article discusses the active processes in the vocabulary of the modern German language in 2020–2021: the processes of borrowing, word formation and semantic derivation. The processes of borrowing and word formation from foreign language/borrowed elements are interpreted as exogenous processes that form a global identity, and are opposed to word-formation processes from autochthonous elements, defined as endogenous processes that contribute to the formation of national identity. Semantic derivation and hybrid word formation are understood as exogenous-endogenous processes of the formation of global and national identity. The article notes that modern borrowings in German are direct borrowings from the English language (7%), less often calques and half-calques, as well as replacing of German words with English words and pseudo-borrowings. It is shown that borrowing becomes the cause of a special lexical and phraseological synonymy in the German language. The creation of culturally-marked vocabulary, lexical polyonymy for expressing key concepts, metaphorization and contamination that implements a language game are described as features of modern word formation. Attention is drawn to the main groups of new phraseological units, as well as to the role of hybridization in word- and phrase formation. The processes of semantic derivation are described as the semantic development of vocabulary based on the concretization and specialization of the relationship.

Key words: borrowing, word formation, phrase formation, semantic derivation, exogenous process, endogenous process, loan translation, hybridization, metaphorization, polyonymy, contamination.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_166

Olga Yu. Syomina

Elena V. Skvortsova

Abstract. The article examines the problem of semantic cohesion, traditionally regarded as one of the characteristic features of an idiom, and reveals the potential for divisibility of idiomatic meaning into components correlating with components of the idiom’s external form. The authors summarize modern approaches to the issues of semantic divisibility and variation of idioms, emphasizing the efficiency of describing idiomatic meaning in terms of frame semantics. The study analyses the functioning of idioms with partially or completely transferred meaning in the texts of national English language corpora, and describes the potential for functional and semantic segregation of their individual structural components, taking into account frame approach to the modelling of meaning. The results obtained confirm the original hypothesis that even completely transferred idiomatic meaning can potentially be divided into elements that can be attributed to separate formal components of the idiom. The study characterizes different structural types of English idioms in terms of divisibility of their meaning and distinguishes between three levels of semantic divisibility correlated to the degree of autonomy demonstrated by structural components of the idioms. As a result, semantic cohesion is defined as a non-permanent feature that can vary under the influence of contextual factors.

Keywords: phraseology, idiom, semantic cohesion, divisibility of meaning, corpus.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_181

Inna V. Senina

Natal’ya I. Mokrova

Natal’ya S. Novolodskaya

Abstract. On the example of abbreviated versions of terms in the field of dialectology of the German language, the article dwells the issue on the main theoretical topics and trends in the development of abbreviation processes. Approaches to the interpretation of the terms “abbreviation” and “shortening” in domestic and foreign literature are being studied. Along with the identification and description of the main types of abbreviations, the problems of abbreviated homonymy and abbreviated synonymy are considered. The names of territorial dialects, in particular, their short forms, are defined as nomenclature designations that are not directly terms but are an integral part of dialectology and therefore belong to the terminological field of the discipline. From the point of view of the formation, development, and consolidation in the use of short forms of terms, the author’s, contextual, disciplinary, and common abbreviations are highlighted.

Keywords: dialectology, dialect, terminology science, terminology, term, concept, abbreviation, shortening.

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Personality and media: humanitarian studies in media education

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_202

Galina V. Mikhaleva

Abstract. The article discusses the methodological and methodical tools in the study of realizing educational objectives by means of media education based on the material of television media texts, including the technologies and methods of conducting university practical classes with elements of media education to foster students’ interethnic tolerance. Practical approaches are based on the methodology for performing literary-imitative, literary-analytical, theatrical role-playing activities on the material of media culture, based on the key concepts of media education: media agencies, media categories, media languages, media technologies, media representations, media audiences. Media education allows one to solve specific educational tasks in the discussion of television programs on the topic of interethnic tolerance in the student audience, which are as follows: forming a stable sense of rejecting the ideology of racial, national, interethnic, interfaith intolerance and extremism among university students; developing students’ critical skills for analysing media texts on the topic of interethnic tolerance; destroying social prejudices and stereotypes in the university environment; teaching young people to define methods of media manipulation and the propaganda of interethnic intolerance in the media based on a critical analysis of media texts; expanding and enriching the cultural, historical and social experience of the youth audience in the field of intercultural communication.

Keywords: interethnic tolerance, television media texts, students, dialogue of cultures, ethnic stereotypes, media education, media text, re-presentation, hate speech, national identity, ethnic culture, xenophobia.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_216

Irina V.Chelysheva

Abstract. The article discusses methodological and methodical approaches to the problem of the development of interethnic tolerance of the student audience based on the material of fiction movies. The author presents the implementing of a cycle of media education classes in the educational process of a university based on the identified main Russian and foreign theoretical and methodological concepts for the development of interethnic tolerance, which can be a promising basis for further successful development in Russian conditions in the context of using educational, educative tasks of media education; development of technologies and methods for conducting training sessions at the university with elements of media education, contributing to the development of interethnic tolerance.

The author presents an analysis of classes, the fundamental basis of which is modern domestic and foreign methods and technologies that are most widely used in modern media education practice. The work with feature films is based on the main types of analysis of works of media culture: autobiographical, structural, critical, semiotic, identification, analysis of cultural mythology, analysis of key characters, etc.

Keywords: media, media education, interethnic tolerance, students, motion pictures, creative activities, analysis of the media text.

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Primary education: theory and practice

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_230

Sonombal T. Sodnomov

Abstract. The paper discusses the system of communication exercises based on the materials of small genres of the Buryats folk literature. Buryat folklore consists of myths, legends, üligers, proverbs, sayings, riddles, fairy tales, etc. In this paper proverbs, riddles and fairy tales served as materials for communication exercises. Communication exercises for the development of verbal skills of primary schoolchildren in the study of the epic “Geser” were presented in the paper “Studying the Buryat heroic epic “Geser” at school” in the International Information and Analytical Journal “Crede Experto: Transport, Society, Education, Language” No. 4, 2019.

In the process of acquaintance with small genres of Buryat folklore, primary schoolchildren learn about life, they develop the skills of artistic perception of the world around them.

This paper describes six groups of communication exercises that make up the system. This system of exercises can be used by a teacher of primary school at the lessons of literary reading in the Buryat language in order to enrich and develop the native Buryat speech of primary schoolchildren. The exercises are aimed at the formation of intonation skills, the ability to find and use the expressive means of the Buryat language in speech, at the formation of literary and creative skills, etc.

Key words: primary schoolchild, folk literature, native Buryat language, literary development in the Buryat language, development of verbal skills, system of exercises, communication exercises, expressive means of the native Buryat language.

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State and law

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_244

Ekaterina Z. Sidorova

Sergey V. Gabeev

Abstract. The topic of preventing juvenile delinquency is very broad and multifaceted. In this article, the authors address the current problems that, in their opinion, hinder the implementation of high-quality prevention of illegal behavior of adolescents at the level of the Irkutsk region. The issues of the current state of juvenile delinquency are discussed, and the structure of this type of crime is highlighted. Some general and specific problems of juvenile delinquency prevention (specific to the Irkutsk region) are revealed. In particular, such problems as the “transfer” of modern crime to the virtual sphere, the unfavorable socio-economic situation in the country and the region, the deformation of the family institution, the high level of criminalization of society, the lack of control of minors and their lack of activities in public, sports, cultural and other socially significant life are highlighted. At the end of the study, the authors come to the conclusion that it is necessary to adjust the methods used at the present stage of prevention of youth crime in our region. In order to influence the crime of minors in the Irkutsk region, it is necessary to develop a unified regional state program for the prevention of juvenile delinquency. The authors state that the development of such a program is a very complex, time-consuming and responsible work that must be carried out with the participation of specialists and criminologists.

Keywords: juvenile delinquency, criminological prevention, crime prevention, deviant behavior, crime in the Irkutsk region, general social prevention, early prevention.

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