# 2, 2024

Air transport security

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_6

Evgeniy Yu. Starkov

Nikolay I. Nikolaykin

Elena Ed. Sigaleva

Lilia Yu. Marchenko

Igor N. Merzlikin

Natalia V. Degterenkova

Galina P. Stepanova

Abstract. Summary data on injuries in Russia and at civil aviation enterprises over the years of the current century are presented. Continuous reduction in injury rates has been shown. Significant actual factors of the working environment that contribute to occupational injuries have been statistically identified, one of the main ones being noisy workplaces. Exposure to noise has a negative impact on hearing and the functional state of the central nervous system thus reducing performance, leading to errors, and contributing to injuries. The possibility to counter the noise effects by otoprotection with an argon-oxygen gas mixture has been experimentally confirmed.

Keywords: injuries, noisy workplaces, human factor, civil aviation enterprises, otoprotection, argon.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_27

Nikolai S. Khersonsky

Ludmila G. Bolshedvorskaya

Abstract. This work is a continuation of two stages of scientific research, where a universal algorithm for a system of applying statistical methods to manage non-conforming products has been developed and outlined.

The results obtained and their analysis made it possible to expand the range of studies and develop recommendations for improving the efficiency of the planning and forecasting of the technical and economic indicators of the enterprise, depending on a priori information on the influence of external and internal factors.

Keywords: a priori information, statistical methods, non-conforming products.

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Aircraft, aircraft engines and methods of their operation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_36

Mihail A Bobrin

Abstract. This paper considers an integrated tolerance control system with failure monitoring and prediction subsystems for aircraft safety management system (ASMS), which is relevant nowadays. The paper deals with the operational component of hydraulic system (HS) tolerance zones. The internal measured parameter is pressure, so it was necessary to find an algorithm that reflects its dependence on operating conditions, its coefficient of kinematic viscosity of the fluid, its temperature, operating time, ambient temperature and flight stage. The operational component of the tolerance zone can be derived from the obtained expression for the pressure by substituting the boundary values of the parameters included in this dependence.

While polling the sensors of the automatic control system it is necessary each time to calculate the range of variation of the parameter for the given stage of flight and other conditions with the help of algorithms for calculating the tolerance zone obtained in the paper. Moreover, the control system has to process a large amount of information using artificial intelligence (AI) methods which allows the safety of aircraft flight (SAF) to be managed.

Keywords: aircraft health management system, aircraft flight safety management system, automatic control system of aircraft hydraulic systems, operational pressure-tolerant zone.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_51

Oleg A. Ratenko

Elizaveta V. Samojlenko

Yurij V. Petrov

Abstract. In modern economic conditions, one of the important tasks is to transfer as many structural elements of aircraft engines as possible to condition-based operation while maintaining a balance between the economic effect and the flight safety level. Such measures will significantly allow aircraft operators to reduce operating costs. One of the candidates for the transition to condition-based operation are turbine blades of gas turbine engines, made from heat-resistant nickel alloys. The microstructure of the heat-resistant nickel alloys is a γ-matrix with dispersed particles of the γ’-phase included into it, which are the elements that provide the high strength properties of nickel alloys. The microstructural changes that occur during the operation of gas turbine engines in turbine blades associated with an increase in the size and shape of the γ’-phase particles, as well as their volume fraction, lead to degradation of the mechanical properties of products. Taking into account these changes can be a tool that will allow one to carry out calculations aimed at assessing the technical condition of the blades of gas turbine engines during their operation.

Key words: gas turbine engine, turbine blade, heat-resistant nickel alloy, γ’-phase, alloy microstructure.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_61

Pavel V. Pavlov

Daniil I. Tyurnev

Nikita V. Sukhachev

Abstract. Assessing the technical condition of glazing elements in the cockpits of operational-tactical aircraft still remains the most important task in ensuring flight safety. To increase the efficiency of operations for non-destructive testing of glazing elements using the speckle structure method of optical radiation, the authors propose to use neural network technologies to automatically identify controlled areas in the cockpit. Artificial intelligence technologies have been used to realise this task. They are based on algorithms of semantic segmentation, classification and detection of monitored areas according to the established markers on the cabin due to the application of convolutional neural network on YOLOv8. The application of machine vision technology have made it possible real-time measurement of the glazing exit from the termination when overpressure has been created inside the cabin. This reduces the time for technical condition assessment by at least 10 times. The use of machine vision technologies have made it possible to measure the value of the glazing outlet from the sealing in real time when creating excessive pressure inside the cabin and thereby reduce the time to assess the technical condition by at least 10 times. The authors have established the reason for the discrepancy between the results of using the speckle-structure method of optical radiation in determining the value of glazing yield from the termination and the “tape” method and developed recommendations to reduce measurement errors.

Keywords: non-destructive testing, optical-electronic systems, speckle, semantic segmentation, convolutional neural network, YOLO, glazing.

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Avionics, aircraft electrical systems, aircraft navigation complexes and methods for their exploitation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_77

Nguyen Thi Linh Phuong

Evgeny S. Neretin

Nguyen Nhu Man

Abstract. Conflict detection and resolution is one of the key tasks in ensuring the safety and efficiency of air transport. In Trajectory Based Operation (TBO), aircraft are given greater flexibility in planning trajectories along the route and greater responsibility for self-separation from each other, so the pilot will need assistance to safely and efficiently perform the task of decentralized conflict resolution during the en-route flight. In this work, we develop a method for identifying and resolving conflict situations in cruising phase based on four-dimensional grid nodes (4D-grid) and the A-star shortest path search algorithm (A* for short) to form an optimal four-dimensional trajectory (4D-trajectory) bypass all airspace obstacles. This new approach helps to avoid false warnings about potential conflicts due to the ability to early detect them and accurately determine the distance from aircraft to areas of dangerous proximity (prohibited zones (PZ), zones of bad weather, other aircraft) and then autonomously form a time-spatial trajectory to bypass them. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we conduct three experiments in different airspace conditions (with and without the areas of dangerous proximity). The results of the experiments prove that potential dangerous proximities of aircraft in flight are effectively identified and resolved using the proposed methodology.

Keywords: Conflict detection and resolution, self-separation, 4D trajectory, 4D-grid, algorithm A*.

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Air traffic monitoring and management systems

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_96

Vyacheslav V. Erokhin

Boris V. Lezhankin

Dmitry Y. Urbansky 

Abstract. Air traffic management (ATM) in regional air traffic control centers is determined by the availability of surveillance equipment that uses the radar principle of determining the coordinates of aircraft. The responsibility zones of the airspace are vast territories where the placement of radar surveillance equipment forming a single control field is not economically feasible. The presence of local areas of space with no air traffic surveillance significantly reduces the safety, regularity and efficiency of flights. The introduction of new technologies that require significantly lower economic costs needs an assessment of the possibility to use them in the relevant regional ATM centers. Therefore, an urgent scientific task is to study the possibility of using multi-position surveillance systems (MPSS) as an assessment of the accuracy characteristics and locations of system elements. The obtained research results can be applied when placing MPSS ground stations to achieve high performance indicators of the surveillance system and air traffic management as a whole.

Keywords: multi-position surveillance system, multilateration, receiving station, working area, location.

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Aviation radio communication, radiolocation, radio navigation and methods of their operation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_119

Muslim A. Mezhetov

Alexey A. Shalaev

Vladislav P. Churbakov

Abstract. Communication between an aircraft and ground services is the main means of organizing air traffic control and providing the safety and regularity of air transportation. In order to maintain the operability of radio communication channels is to perform radio monitoring. This article considers a radio monitoring algorithm. It makes possible to classify amplitude-modulated signals by modulation depth, to show the possibility of detection of overmodulated oscillations and to restore the initial information message with sufficient accuracy for its perception.

Key words: overmodulation, double-sideband suppressed carrier modulation, signal analysis, interference detection, cognitive radio, radio monitoring.

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Air traffic monitoring and management systems

Issues, prospects of development and application of unmanned aircraft systems

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_134

Oleg N. Skrypnik

Ekaterina V. Kurylenko

Abstract. The article considers the method of synthesis of an optimal UAV flight path and an algorithm of the flight control system. The system and algorithm are designed for four-dimensional (4D) trajectory-based operations (TBO) in the context of the CNS/ATM and PBN concepts, which will increase the operational efficiency of the UAV navigation and piloting processes. The paper presents a mathematical model of the control object and algorithms for forming a time-optimal flight path. An assessment of the proposed methodology is also presented by verifying and validating the system software using simulation modeling. The results obtained demonstrate the functional capabilities of the control system to create time-optimal profiles of trajectories that meet operational requirements.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), control system, optimal flight path.

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General Linguistics

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_150

Lydia A.Stanovaïa

Abstract. This article examines the different fate of Latin verb constructions type cantare habeo > je chanterai and habeo cantatam > j’ai chanté. As a result of the analysis, the reasons for the appearance of these periphrases in the Latin language were identified; the features of their further transformation into vulgar Latin during the formation of Romance languages were established; the specifics of the further development of the considered constructions in the process of evolution of the French language and their place in the verb system of modern French were determined; a new explanation of this amazing phenomenon of the evolution of French and other Romance languages was proposed.

Keywords: Latin, Romance languages and Romance linguistics, grammatization, history of the French language, linguistic economy, verb system.

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Problems of linguistic conceptualization and categorization of the world in language

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_165

Larisa V. Proskurnina

Abstract. The article discusses linguistic representation of human knowledge about future events, processes, situations. The study focuses on prospective categorization of the reality. More specifically the paper considers linguistic conceptualization and categorization of forecasting as a cognitive activity. The author states that modus category of PREDICTION involves cognitive operations of interpretation, modalization, and evaluation of the conceptual content. The paper discusses discursive construal of future climate changes in English media. The findings obtained may be helpful for further study of the modal categorization as one of the forms of knowledge representation in language and its interpretative potential.

Key words: probabilistic knowledge, prediction, modus, modus verb, modus category, interpretation.

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Cognitive, communicative-pragmatic, stylistic, corpus linguistic studies

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_178

Klementina V. Metelkova 

Abstract. The main idea of the article is devoted to the problem of reflecting in language the processes associated with changing human attitudes towards animals in modern society. The focus of the research is on the zoomorphic lexical unit “tierfrei”. The research was based on 130 examples of the use of the “tierfrei” token in the DWDS corpus. On the basis of several discourses, 4 main meanings of the declared lexeme were identified and systematized in terms of its pragmatic function. Based on the linguistic material obtained, the authors can draw the following conclusions that take place in modern German society and influence the formation of the German national picture of the world: 1) the “tierfrei” lexeme is a neologism and has been actively used by native German speakers only since 2007; 2) the “tierfrei” lexeme can have four main meanings: “without the presence of animals”; “without the content of animal products”; “without elements of animal origin”; “without experiments on animals”; 3) the “tierfrei” lexeme can be found in such discourses as culinary, medical, advertising, in each of which it performs its pragmatic function; 4) the appearance and active use of the word “tierfrei” in the texts of the German-speaking space indicates that changes are taking place in modern German-speaking society associated with a rethinking of the role of animals in a person’s life.

Key words: zoomorphic lexical unit, German language picture of the world, corpus, meaning, pragmatic function, culinary discourse, advertising discourse, human attitude to animals.

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Personality and media: humanitarian studies in media education

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_189

Alexander V. Fedorov

Anastasia Al. Levitskaya

Abstract. The authors based on content analysis (in the context of historical, socio-cultural and political situation, etc.) of the texts published in the “thaw” period of the “Soviet Screen” magazine (1986-1991). ), the authors concluded that the materials on the subject of Western cinema at this stage can be divided into the following genres: ideologized articles emphasizing criticism of bourgeois cinema and its harmful influence on the audience (1986-1987); articles on the history of Western cinema; biographies and creative portraits of Western actors and directors; interviews with Western filmmakers; reviews of Western films; articles on international film festivals and foreign film weeks in the USSR; reviews of the current repertoire of Western national cinemas.

Keywords: “Soviet Screen” magazine, Western cinema, film criticism, ideology, politics, reviews, articles.

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DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_201

Galina V. Mikhaleva

Abstract. The article contains a plot analysis of the film image of the family and family education in Russian feature films (1920-2020). The thematic variety of plots is associated with the representation of family and family education. It includes such traditional topics as intergenerational conflict (the problem of “fathers and sons”), the preservation of family values in the light of their historical transformation in the lives of several family generations, challenges of young families and their relationships with representatives of the older generation, the film image of adoptive parents and the problems of adopted children, social orphanhood and homelessness, hardships of large families, loss of family members, family reunions, the film image of a happy family. Further analysis of the transformation of the theme of family and family education in Russian audiovisual texts remains relevant both in cultural and media education aspects.

Keywords: family, family education, cinema, film adaptation, media education, film education, film, critical thinking.

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Theoretical and practical issues of foreign languages teaching

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_212

Tatiana S. Sushii

Abstract. This article explores the role of virtual museums in the context of teaching foreign languages and their impact on the socio-cultural development of students. The relevance of the issue is due to the fact that virtual museums represent a new form of museum experience that allows users to remotely immerse themselves in the history and culture of the foreign language. The purpose of the study is to identify the potential of virtual museums in teaching foreign languages and developing students’ socio-cultural competence. It is shown how they contribute to the formation of understanding and respect for different cultures. The results of the study reveal the advantages of using virtual museums in teaching foreign languages. The article can be useful for teachers and students who seek to effectively use this technology in teaching foreign languages and developing socio-cultural competence.

Key words: virtual museum, information and communication technology, socio-cultural competence, teaching foreign languages.

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