# 2, 2022
Air transport security
Abstract. The complication of aircraft maintenance processes in the aerodrome area under the influence of extreme, and often uncontrolled use of unmanned aerial vehicles, jeopardizes aircraft (AC) flight safety, entailing consequences from acts of unlawful interference and terrorist threats, danger to life and public health, environmental changes. This is the purpose of the study, which resulted in a new mechanism for ensuring safety through the development of a management systems integration model (IMS) and a flight safety management system (SMS). Particular attention is paid to the issue of introducing electronic IMS models in combination with SMS, the development of which is built taking into account the requirements of the management system and modern IT technologies that ensure the interconnection of the main, supporting processes and management processes, indicators of management processes, flight safety and parameters of the main business processes with the business characteristics of the aerodrome.
Keywords: Risks, quality, flight safety, integration, integrated management system, Bayesian trust networks, Petri nets.
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Aircraft, aircraft engines and methods of their operation
Abstract. This paper is devoted to the development of a control system for the study of thermophysical properties and phase transformations in polymer and composite materials. The use of polymeric materials instead of non-ferrous and stainless metals is a necessary and promising process in the production and repair of units and mechanisms of aircraft. This trend has received particular development in recent decades, not only in aviation, but also in the entire transport engineering. Replacing metals with plastics and composites based on them reduces the main indicator in the products of this industry, namely its weight. Often, when designing and operating aircraft, it becomes simply impossible to manufacture competitive products without the use of polymers and composites in their design. The strength properties of polymers in a number of aircraft designs are compensated by the resources of their use, which are not always measured by significant time resources. Nevertheless, despite the unique capabilities of new structural polymers, the issue of changing their electro-physic-chemical properties in the process of exposure to temperature loads and other external factors during operation remains open. The algorithm of automated control and monitoring of the experimental study of the process of high-frequency electrothermy presented by the authors makes it possible to obtain more objective data on the results of the studies. The implemented algorithm of the automated control system, in the form of a software package, made it possible to obtain new and clarify the existing results of previously conducted experiments in relation to structural materials used in the manufacture and repair of aircraft and other vehicles.
Key words: transport, polymeric materials, composites, thermophysical properties, automated control system for scientific research, phase transformations.
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Abstract. The authors studied the time the Mi-8T Mi8-MTV aircraft spent in the states of technical operation. The statistical data of the operating airline of JSC “Norilsk Avia” were used. Statistical distribution laws are formalized for each time series of variations. The conformity of the theoretical and obtained statistical laws of time distribution according to the Pearson criterion has been verified. It is confirmed that the process of technical operation of aircraft in practical tasks can be considered as a semi-Markov one.
Keywords: semi-Markov process, time spent in the process state, statistical data processing, exponential distribution, technical operation of aircraft, integral distribution function.
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Discourse and Text: vectors of research
Abstract. The paper focuses on the objects, topics and strategies of newspaper tolerance discourse in the English-language press in the United Kingdom and the USA and the Russian and Belarusian-language press in the Republic of Belarus. The key research method is discourse analysis that reveals relations between the media text and social context. The results of the research show that the objects of the English-language tolerance discourse base on gender, racial and sexual identity, while in the Belarusian media discourse, tolerance envelops ethnicity, age and psychophysical characteristics. The study exposes discursive strategies of the newspaper tolerance discourse ‚Äď strategies of compassion, positive positioning, solidarity and information. It was revealed that these strategies are used in the English-language and Belarusian press in relation to different social groups. The results provide an opportunity for further studies into the tolerance discourse in various cultures and languages.
Key words: media discourse, press, tolerance, solidarity, discrimination, identity
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Abstract. The paper focuses on the image of the future modeling as a potent tool for creating the illocutionary force of political discourse.¬† The study is based on the linguistic analysis of Tony Blair’s public speeches. It has been stated, that the image of the future possesses a great potential in terms of impact on the target audience in political discourse. The content specifics and language representation of the future are motivated by three factors:¬† the speaker’s intentionality, properties of the pragmatic context and the characteristics of the target audience. The complex nature of the pragmatic effect construal has been substantiated and made explicit. It consists in activating the language units that transfer positive evaluation of the future in terms of¬† attractiveness, innovation and solidarity. The construal of the future in political communication¬† is modeled as a discourse operation involving several levels of achieving the destination (pragmatic effect): contact-making, conceptual, affective, voluntary and evaluative.
Key words: image, future, modeling, model, political discourse, levels of linguistic impact, linguistic function, orientation function.
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Abstract. The article reveals the analysis of lexical means containing evaluation of military-political conflicts in Chinese mass media. As a result of continuous sampling, the authors picked out 250 texts devoted to military-political conflicts and pinpointed 248 thematically relevant words and word combinations, having connotation in their semantic structure. If during the first period (1990-2013) Chinese mass media used mainly modal verbs to express advice and parentheses to refer to the source of information in relation to military-political discourse, during the second period (2014-2022) the choice of words which are used to inform people about the conflict has changed considerably. Evaluative semes were identified after the definition analysis of the obtained lexical units. The lexical units used by Chinese mass media have explicit negative connotation. Often they are used as conflictogenes as applying them China explicitly condemns the parties to a conflict and / or the superpowers standing behind the conflict. The texts are abundant in evaluative words, which helps to produce strong pragmatic influence on the addressee of the message. As for the parts of speech these words belong to, the most frequent ones are the verbs and nouns derived from them. Such a tendency helps to show the dynamic nature of the conflict. The second most frequent group is descriptive adjectives used in comparative and superlative constructions. This lexical units allow the media to reflect the tension of the conflict and create a bright image. Besides, to enhance their influence on the target audience, the media utilize multiple metaphors, which, again, contain evaluative words.¬†
Key words: evaluativity category, military-political discourse, conflictogene, connotation, mass media discourse, military-political conflict, Chinese media, conflict, evaluative vocabulary, evaluative component.
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Abstract. The article is devoted to the study of the argumentative space of the pedagogical normative discourse, represented by various types of texts that contain rules of conduct intended for students of German primary schools. The paper considers the structure of the argumentative space, identifies the types of contextual arguments and carries out their classification. Based on the study of the composition of argumentative constructions, the types of logical relations between theses and arguments are determined, the role of argumentative constructions in the structure of the text at the macro and micro levels is described. Based on the analysis of empirical material, it is concluded that the normative text has an argumentative potential, but the argumentative and normative spaces of texts reveal a certain autonomy and coexist in parallel. The pragmatic structure of the argumentative space is actualized and superimposed on the pragmatic structure of the normative space in the case of the argumentation procedure. The analysis of the text array also showed that the widespread use of various types of contextual arguments and ways of their verbal embodiment of argumentation in most selected text units indicates the systematic nature of argumentation as a means of convincing influence on schoolchildren, who must decode and assimilate normative statements. The novelty of the study lies in the involvement of normative texts as an object of study of argumentation and the definition of patterns that determine the features of the construction of an argumentative space in pedagogical discourse.
Key words: argumentation, argumentative space, contextual argument, arguer, recipient, pedagogical discourse, normative discourse.
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Issues of cognitive linguistics
Abstract. The cognitive foundations of¬†proper¬†names contain features that allow identifying algorithms and mechanisms¬†for naming and creating a nickname both in real life and in virtual space. This article presents the analysis of characters‚Äô names in the forum role-play fantasy game “Legends of Empya”, reveals the players‚Äô motives while naming characters and describes mechanisms for creating a in-game nickname. The functioning of anthroponyms in the forum role-play game in various communicative situations confirms the importance of correct perception and understanding of names by other players for¬†successful¬†internal communication. The combination of semantic and cognitive aspects of the¬†linguistic¬†picture of the forum role-play game for understanding the functioning of in-game nicknames is a new and promising direction of modern linguistics, and the results of the study complement the existing onomastic theories.
Key words: in-game nickname, name choice motive, name semantics, linguistic picture of forum role-play game, cognitive aspect of communication
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Abstract. The article is devoted to the problem of studying axiological aspects of gastronomic discourse based on the analysis of English neologisms-gastronyms. Gastronomic discourse is one of the forms of communication representing a system of dominants. The material for the study was English neological gastronymic units taken from the electronic dictionaries Wordspy, Macmillan Dictionary, Urban Dictionary, Cambridge Dictionaries Online Blog and analyzed as indicators of changes taking place in society. The article also notes that the evaluative possibilities of neologisms-gastronyms, their axiological resources are revealed in a certain discursive environment as well as the emergence and consolidation in use of the new lexical units themselves. Evaluation in gastronomic discourse is given on a variety of grounds depending on axiological orientations of the speakers, but, as a rule, it is located on the ‚Äúgood / bad‚ÄĚ scale which has a pronounced subjective character and is determined by axiological orientations of native speakers. When analyzing the evaluative component of gastronome neologisms, new approaches to food products are found that were not previously characteristic of the English-speaking society. It is noted that food is no longer considered solely as a source of nutrition.
Key words: axiology, value, gastronomic discourse, gastronom, culture, food culture, neologism, evaluation, language, discursive practices.
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Theoretical and practical issues of foreign languages teaching
Abstract. The paper deals with the problem of forming communicative speech skills of BA students who study French for special purposes. The relevance of the problem addressed is determined by the current social demand for teaching foreign languages for special purposes at the university level. It is pointed out that the formation of foreign language professional competence of students is possible with the use of authentic materials in the subject area of tourism. It is emphasized that students can maintain their level of professionalism due to the skills of working with authentic sources of information and the ability to participate in international professionally relevant events. It is stated that students‚Äô knowledge of strategies of mastering tourism discourse in a foreign language provides the creation of speech products that meet the requirements of lexical-grammatical cohesion, content logic, structure of an utterance with reliance on professionally relevant texts. It is specified that education programs for undergraduate students have aims directed at mastering all types of speech activity based on professional vocabulary and at skills of professional communication. The research methods are based on fundamental principles of teaching languages for special purposes: authenticity, scientific basis, language means, social demand, and teaching methodology. The research results in the suggested series of exercises that are essential for building speech skills in the process of teaching language for special purposes. These exercises can be used in teaching a foreign language to students of Russian universities within the subject area of ¬ętourism¬Ľ.
Key words: French for professional purposes, student‚Äôs professional thesaurus, forming communicative speech skills, subject area ‚Äútourism‚ÄĚ, texts of flyers.
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Abstract. The command of a language is a practical skill that helps a human to adapt in society. Teaching a foreign language should also be done in compliance with the practical nature of linguistic knowledge. A language is to be studied in the context of its usage within the discourse that makes linguistic utterances truly meaningful. Watching movies for pedagogical purposes allows students to learn a foreign language in the media that matches natural cultural discourse as closely as possible. Thus, the movie demonstrates the context of the language usage and shows th–Ķ fragments of its native speakers‚Äô life. The authors suggest their own discourse-oriented methods of work with the movie resources as an alternative to traditional educational materials, such as texts. These methods may be used by educators in preparation of their own film-related tasks, a very time-consuming process by itself.
Key words: movie, movie industry, movie resources, learning a foreign language, teaching a foreign language, discourse, context of situation, adaptive ability.
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Bilingualism and bilingual education
Abstract. The article deals with the speech activity of artificial bilingual individuals depending on the environment (monolingual or multilingual) in which a new language has been studied. According to the hypothesis, a person mastering a new language in a group, where some students have already been bilingual by the time of learning, demonstrates more readiness to switch the language code and a richer range of functions when using this language compared to those who have acquired it in a monolingual group. The results of the survey showed that the willingness to code switching didn‚Äôt correlate significantly with the environment of learning a foreign language. Another part of the hypothesis was confirmed ‚Äď those who have studied a new language in a multilingual environment more often use it as an instrument of social interaction and a means of expressing attitudes. Bilingual individuals who have learned a new language in a monolingual environment are more likely to use it only for exchanging information and expressing thoughts.
Keywords: monolingual individual, bilingual individual, multilingual individual, monolingual environment (group), multilingual environment (group), code switching.
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State and law
Abstract. The author of the article addresses an unusual topic. In this paper, an attempt was made to correlate such social institutions as preschool education and criminal law. The author analyzes these concepts and in the research process concludes that these institutions have certain points of contact. In order to identify the general level of preschool teachers‚Äô knowledge of the basics of criminal law, the author conducted a survey among educators and came to the conclusion that in most cases educators do not even have a general idea of what criminal law is, how important it is to know about the types of criminal penalties and how exactly knowledge about criminal law can help an educator in his work. In our opinion, knowledge of the basics of criminal law is necessary for the educator and, undoubtedly, will help him in performing his professional functions. Knowing about the negative consequences that may occur if a teacher commits a crime, including in relation to his pupil, an educator will be more attentive and responsible to his work duties.
Keywords: education system, criminal law, preschool education, interdisciplinary communication, criminal responsibility, teachers, educators, rights of pupils, rights and duties of children.
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Abstract. The article describes the concept of creating a reader-online marathon and the specificity of its implementation in the framework of the development of the ¬ęArctic robinsonade¬Ľ plot. The artistic text of the XX century ‚Äď the novel by Constantin Badigin ¬ęThe way to Grumant¬Ľ is involved as material. The plot is based on a real historical event of the 18th century ‚Äď the voyage of Pomors to the Arctic, where they were shipwrecked and forced to survive on an uninhabited island for six years, from 1743 to 1749. The study of ¬ęArctic Robinsonade¬Ľ contributes to the formation of aesthetics of reader perception of artistic texts that are part of the northern superscript; cultural self-identification, which is defined by the reader through an understanding of the literary text as a regional value; a respectful attitude to the cultural heritage of the Russian North, a sense of belonging to the historical past of a small homeland, to the heroes of a bygone era. The leading method of work in organizing an online marathon is a method of microlearning. The microlearning method as a phenomenon of the digital transformation of education is oriented to the modern person, allowing to solve important applied tasks in online learning. It illustrates the practical application of this method in an online marathon based on the didactic potential of the mobile application VKontakte. The article discusses the learning process, task formats and results of the experimental marathon.
Keywords: ¬ęArctic Robinsonade¬Ľ, reader‚Äôs marathon, image of the Arctic, chronotope of the Arctic, Native literature.
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Abstract. The article presents the results of a survey of teachers in the Kyrgyz Republic concerning organizing students‚Äô independent work in teaching practice. Strengths and weaknesses of developing students‚Äô independence in teaching science and math disciplines were systematized, difficulties in organizing students‚Äô independent work were revealed and analyzed and their understanding will allow the strategy of teacher training to be changed. The urgency of the conducted study is due to the search of means of involving teachers in discussion of difficult issues of modern education in implementing the new state standard adopted in the Kyrgyz Republic.
Key words: independence, independent work, self-education, self-improvement, students, survey, individualization, differentiation, competence approach.
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