# 1, 2022

Air transport security

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_6

Viktor M. Rukhlinsky

Lyudmila G. Bolshedvorskaya

Shamil F. Ganiev

Abstract. The present article emphasizes that when managing risks to ensure the safety of the operator’s flights, hazard factors due to the occurrence of uneven runways of aerodromes located in conditions with extreme climatic conditions are of great importance. In this regard, the relevance of the research topic is due to the lack of research on existing methods and algorithms for assessing the roughness of airfield pavements in order to reduce their negative impact on aircraft operating in the Far North and the Arctic.

Key words: risk management, runway, airfield roughness.

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DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_18

Ivan S. Muravyev

Abstract. When flying in automatic mode, the pilot is outside the manual control loop and functions as an operator in the system. Congestion of the visual channel of perception of information coming to the pilot, the need to intervene in control through the influence of the pilot on the program of operation of the aircraft, and not through controls, leads to a change in the operational field of activity of pilots. To develop new piloting skills as part of the operator’s duties as a pilot, a different critical view of research in this area is needed.

Keywords: activity algorithm, information, analysis, consistency, manageability, transformation.

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DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_37

Nikolay A. Kupriyanov

Sergey A. Proshkin

Sergey V. Stadnik

Pavel D. Solodovnik

Abstract. The article deals with the results of the study of mastering quality and accuracy of actions in emergencies during the flight by the fighter aviation cadets while flying the YAK-130. The examples demonstrating visually the impact of registration and interpretation of some material relating to “The flight operation manual” on the process of knowledge and skills formation have been examined. “A tree of problems” giving an opportunity to join the interpretation of emergencies during the flight to safety of flights consequently on an example of “The flight operation manual” learning has been synthesized. The obtained results of the research allowed us to formulate the recommendations on improving “The flight operation manual”. The statistical estimates of applying the described recommendations while developing knowledge and skills of fighter aviation cadets concerning the actions in emergencies during the flight are presented.

Key words: human factor, flight crew, flight, failure, emergency, mental stability.

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DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_51

Vladimir V. Ustinov

Viktor V. Kashkovsky

Lusine G.Chobanyan

Abstract. The paper proposes methods and algorithms for evaluating the piloting technique of a medium-haul aircraft at the stage of the landing approach maneuver and landing itself, considering the weighting coefficients of the significance of the flight parameters and the stages of the maneuver.

The paper aims to reduce labor costs for processing flight information, eliminate subjectivity and increase the reliability of the results of the evaluation of the quality of aircraft piloting techniques by the pilot within the existing system of objective control of civil aviation of the Russian Federation.

The novelty of the paper is in the development of a complex criterion for evaluating the quality of aircraft piloting techniques by the pilot. The development of algorithms and programs for calculating the weighting coefficients of the significance of each parameter and the stages of the flight task element, the correlation of parameters, qualitative or quantitative evaluation of the flight tasks performed are taken into account.

Thus, the expediency of developing and implementing a separate software module for a ground-based flight information processing complex of the «Topaz-M» type has been determined.

Key words: flight safety, piloting techniques, the normal law of distribution of random variables, weight coefficients.

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Aircraft, aircraft engines and methods of their operation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_1_73

Sergey V. Skorobogatov

Dmitry V. Vostretsov

Abstract. Aircraft flight is the main operation of any airline. To ensure competitiveness and good economical indices the flight time should be considerably longer than the total time an airplane spends on the ground. Aircraft flight is provided by a power plant, which is based on heat engines – heat machines that convert heat energy into effective mechanical work. The heat additive to the operating fluid in such engines nearly always occurs by means of hydrocarbon fuel (kerosene or aviation gasoline) combustion. While burning, the combustion products are released, some of which cause significant harm to the environment. Increasing environmental friendliness is an actual task today, and non-compliance of engines with ICAO standards on hazardous emissions limits the domestic aircraft sales and exploitation abroad. In this regard, the search for ways to improve the environmental performance of aircraft engines is a priority for the aviation industry.

Key words: combustion chamber, aviation gas-turbine engine, emissions of harmful substances, environmental friendliness.

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Aviation radio communication, radiolocation, radio navigation and methods of their operation

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_88

Roman O. Arefyev

Oleg N. Skrypnik

Natalya G. Arefyeva (Astrakhanceva)

Abstract. The paper describes the experience of using software-defined receivers for receiving signals from GPS and Beidou navigation satellites. The peculiarities of the GNSS SDR platform and implementation of the satellite navigation system receivers on its basis were considered. The structure of the GNSS SDR flow graph with description of the functional capacity of each block was shown. As an RF part of the receiver, a HackRF platform with an active antenna and Temperature Controlled Crystal Oscillator was used. The receiver was tested with help of the SN-3803M simulator radiating GPS signals. The dependences of the time required for position-fixing and the number of the navigational satellites which provide tracking on the given false alarm probability were obtained experimentally.

Through natural experiments the authors compared the performance (number of tracking satellites, positioning accuracy, dilution of precision) of the SDR-receiver and ATGM336H portable receiver applied to the GPS and Beidou systems. The main features of the receivers operation were identified and analyzed.

Keywords: GPS, SDR, Beidou, software-defined receiver, dilution of precision, positioning accuracy.

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Avionics, aircraft electrical systems, aircraft navigation complexes and methods for their exploitation

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_101

Andrei A. Sanko

Aliaksey A. Sheynikov

Gafur Sh. Tuganov

Abstract. The article presents the results of studies of distribution laws of output signals of microelectromechanical sensors used for platformless inertial navigation systems (INS) installed on lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). As object of study, the GY-91 sensor was used which is made with the use of microelectromechanical technology and has an inertial measuring unit consisting of three elements located orthogonally: a turn meter, an accelerometer, a magnetometer and a single-channel barometer. Formulas for approximating the mean square deviations of overload, pitch angle and angular velocity indications for various test conditions are given. It is recommended to use the obtained dependences when calibrating accelerometers and angular velocity sensors. Recommendations on the use of different filtering methods depending on the distribution laws of the output parameters of the sensor are given. Various filters used for platformless INS sensors, such as the Kalman filter, the median filter, the AB filter and the complementary filter, are considered. A comparative analysis of algorithms for filtering the output signals of microelectromechanical sensors according to the value of signal-to-noise ratio for an aircraft-type UAV at different propeller speeds was performed. Recommendations are given on the use of the obtained research results for the algorithmic support of lightweight UAV navigation systems.

Key words: sensors, gyroscope, accelerometer, errors, distribution law.

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DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_113

Valeriya A. Rayskina

Abstract. The study has been undertaken to present the semiotic image of Michel Montaigne (the XVIth century humanist, philosopher, politician, and writer) perceived as a precedent personality of French linguoculture. This semiotic image is constructed via the study of Michel Montaigne`s iconic portraits in various genres: pictorial portraits, engraving, sculpture, bust, stamps, medals, and coins images. Fine works of art are considered as a semiotic system, and as an image-text, that performs the following functions: informational, aesthetical, axiological, and emotional. Portrait is defined as a lingo-socio-cultural phenomenon, consisting of culture-meaningful visual and verbal signs. The material basis for the work represents a collected portrait gallery including 34 images of Michel Montaigne created between 1578 and 2012. The purpose of the study is to model a complexe semiotic image of the precedent personality (Michel Montaigne) in diachrony. Our created semiotic image is composed of visual and verbal features with semiotic functions, and also includes connotative component that complements this precedent image.

Keywords: semiotics, semiotic image, semiotic functions, precedent personality, precedent image, portrait, verbal portrait, linguoculture, humanism, Renaissance.

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Area studies and Asian studies

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_129

Anna V. Boyarkina

Abstract. The article is devoted to the development of a new diplomatic course of the Chinese leader Xi Jinping. The purpose of the article is to show the evolution of the new foreign policy doctrine of the PRC – Major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics. This idea is being implemented by President Xi Jinping after the 18th National Congress of the CPC, held in 2012, which marked a new period in the development of China’s foreign policy and diplomacy. The theory of Major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics is mainly founded on the legacy of Chinese culture and traditional concepts.

This study is based on the theoretical approach of the Chinese School of International Relations. The subject of the study is the diplomacy of a great power with Chinese characteristics for a new era. Consideration of each large-scale concept or idea will allow a multifaceted description of the new course of Xi’s foreign policy since his coming to power and to the present.

It is concluded that the conceptual foundations of Chinese foreign policy in the new era are global, transcontinental cornerstone points that transform the system of international relations of a new type. In a broader sense, these concepts are seen as China’s contribution to international relations theory. A distinctive feature of Major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era is its targeted content for each region of the world.

Key words: China, Major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics, Community with a shared future for mankind, New type of international relations, Belt and Road Initiative.

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Discourse and Text: vectors of research

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_141

Olga I. Korolenko

Abstract. This article is devoted to author’s preface to works of art. A preface can be considered as a promotional text that helps a reader to choose a composition. The article discusses the communication strategies used by authors to provide a deeper understanding of the main text of the work. The self-presentation of the author, as the creator of the work, is clearly expressed in the texts of the preface. The article identifies the language means of self-naming of the author.

Keywords: author, author’s Preface, linguistics, French, fiction, publishing discourse, promotional text, communicative strategies for author’s self-naming.

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DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_156

Elena E. Bylina

Abstract. The article is devoted to the analysis of the speech tactics of promise in modern English detective discourse. The research has been carried out using examples taken from the latest novel “Origin” by the contemporary American writer Dan Brown. The study has been performed using the conceptual apparatus of pragmatics.

The plots of D. Brown’s novels are built on the principle of contrast, the latter appears to be an idiosyncratic dominant of the author, this feature is also characteristic of “Origin”. In addition, detective discourse is potentially conflict, which follows from its genre-forming features, which are distinguished by bipolarity. Conflict situations are created by the author in order to develop intrigue, which is made by a plurality of “false traces” and the presence of several “innocent suspects”.

Among the possible types of conflicts, there are latent conflicts, their participants do not go over to open confrontation. Conflicts in detective discourse, in which there is a promise, we identify as the type of latent speech conflicts.

Our analysis showed that the speech tactics of promise in the detective novel analyzed is used in a speech strategy of provoking the addressee to certain actions, a strategy of maintaining good relations, as well as in the discourse of reaction. The speech tactics of promise is effective in transforming potentially conflicting interactions into cooperative ones.

Key words: detective discourse, speech tactics of promise, insincere promise, speech strategy, cooperative strategies, non-cooperative strategies, Cooperation Principle, Politeness Principle, manipulation, conflict.

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DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_181

Kristina A. Kuznetsova

Abstract. This article is devoted to publishing abstracts to works of art. The abstract can be considered a promotional text that helps the reader to choose and familiarize himself with the composition. The article discusses the communicative strategies that publishers use to provide a deeper understanding the text of the annotation on the back cover of the book. The self-presentation of the author and the attractiveness of the abstract are the most frequently used methods of attracting the reader in the texts of annotations on the back cover of works of art.

Keywords: author, publisher’s abstract, linguistics, Italian, fiction, publisher, publishing discourse, promotional text, communicative strategies.

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Primary education: theory and practice

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_196

Sonombal Th. Sodnomov

Annotation. The paper deals with the problems of forming goal-setting action in Buryat lessons. In the author’s opinion, the problem is especially acute in Buryat lessons as a lot of students consider this subject unnecessary and the knowledge of the Buryat language not prestigious. An analysis of the practical activities of teachers shows that the goals of educational activities are mostly set and formulated by the teacher himself. Ignorance of the lesson goals as well as the goals of studying the educational material make students weary, unwilling to learn the language, and also reduces their working capacity.

The author suggests specific techniques that can be used in Buryat lessons at the stage of goal setting. The proposed techniques increase motivation, help students accept the goals of the lesson.

Key words: Buryat language, modern lesson, goal-setting, educational process, formation, standard, universal learning activities, ability, lesson goal, lesson objectives.

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Issues of Philosophy

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_208

Irina A. Nelaeva

Abstract. The article is devoted to the development of the concept “personality” in modern sociology based on the example of anthroponyms imitating binominal nomenclature and created according to the Latin model «homo + adjective». As our study has shown, these lexical units can represent not only a unified system, but through different configurations form subsystems, used later for analysis in humanities disciplines such as ethnography, philosophy, theology, psychology, pedagogy and others. The analysis of binominal anthroponyms in scientific texts on sociology, devoted to the concept «personality», showed that thanks to their informative density in each of them we can implicitly / explicitly observe, first, the mutual influence of the macroworld (society + [nature]) and the microworld in a particular personality; secondly, the manifestation of the passive and/or active personality in society; thirdly, the reflection of traditional and innovative perceptions of personality; and fourthly, they highlight the problems associated with a particular personality and ways of solving them.

Keywords: personality, binominal anthroponyms: homo societatis, homo hierarchicus, homo sociologicus, homo socialis, homo socius, homo academicus, homo parochius и homo clausus.

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Attention: experience

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_1_218

Olga D. Tolstyh

Svetlana V. Mindeeva

Abstract. The object of the authors’ research is the Olympiad movement at a technical university. This article is a continuation of several articles published by the authors on the Olympiad movement. The thirty-year experience of the assistant professor of the department and co-author of the article is the justification of interest in this area. The authors are interested in the issue prospects for developing of the student mathematical Olympiad. The Olympic movement is considered a unique environment with all participants in the process is immersed. The authors believe that the source of the Olympiad movement was the mathematical club, the result of which is the participation of students in numerous Olympiads, both university and all-Russian, victory in them. The article presents the experience gained by the Department of Mathematics in conducting the regional student Olympiad on the basis of the Irkutsk State University of Railways, on the basis of which conclusions drawn about the need to introduce additional measures, in particular: providing participating universities with a detailed list of program questions and tasks for preparing for the test; presentation of participating universities; The format of the round table related to the analysis of outstanding tasks or errors; excursion to the history of the regional Olympiad. The innovations we have identified and the analysis of existing measures indicate in which direction the further work of the Olympiad movement should be carried out, working on the prospects for its development.

Keywords: regional mathematical Olympiad, Olympiad movement, mathematics, non-standard problems, mathematical club, independent work, set of tasks, participating universities.

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