Категория: Altaistics

The yakut language in genetic classification

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_149

Innokentiy N. Novgorodov

Abstract. Based on the use of the experience of previous systematizations and the achievements of the new scientific paradigm, the author supports the adherents of the polynomial classification of the Turkic languages. Earlier, a separate Yakut classification type (taxon) was established along with the Chuvash, Oguz, Karluk-Uygur, Kyrgyz-Kypchak, and Uryankhai. Moreover, taxa arose in the Pra-Türkic language. In the Yakut language, the main stages are revealed: 1) the Pra-Türkic time: up to the 1st century BC, Mongolia, the emergence of the Yakut classification type; 2) ancient Turkic time: from the 1st century BC, Mongolia before the 10th century A.D., Circumbaikal region, the ancient Yakut language; 3) Middle Ages: from the 10th century, the Cirkumbaikal region to the 17th century, Yakutia, the Middle Yakut language; 4) New time: from the 17th century, Yakutia to the modern Republic of Sakha within the Russian Federation, the Yakut language.

Key words: Yakut identity, genetic polynomial classification, the Leipzig-Jakarta list, haplotype, Caucasoid genetic admixture, periodization of the Yakut language.

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The nanai language in genetic classification

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_44

Innokentiy N. Novgorodov

Lyubov Z. Zaksor

Abstract. The article discusses a new scientific paradigm due to interdisciplinary research, including the modern achievements of comparative historical linguistics and population genetics. Thus, in Germany, the Leipzig-Jakarta list was established in order to classify the compared idioms, which will take into account both the tree model (divergence) and the facts of borrowing languages (convergence). This approach is used in establishing the classification status of the Nanai language based on the study of the Leipzig-Jakarta list and genetic data. The study of the verbs of the Leipzig-Jakarta list, the features of the Tungus-Manchu languages, taking into account the data of the genetics of the Manchus and Nanai, an overview of the processes of divergence and convergence (mixing, hybridization) in the field of language and identity against the background of the challenges of globalization and the scientific and technological revolution of the modern world, modernization and transformation of the traditional societies allow us to conclude that the Nanai language in genetic classification reveals a greater affinity to the closely related languages (idioms) of the Evenki and Udege than to the Manchu language. Thus, all taxa of the Evenki, Udege and Nanai are opposed to the Manchu. This circumstance forms the position on the binary system of modern Tungus-Manchu languages, which, on the one hand, includes taxa of the Evenki, Udege and Nanai languages, on the other hand, the Manchu language.

Key words: genetic classification, comparative studies, population genetics, stable vocabulary, haplogroup, Tungus-Manchu languages and peoples, Nanai language.

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The leipzig-jakarta list in a genetic classification on an example of the even language eastern dialect

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_2_36

Innokentiy N. Novgorodov

Abstract.Currently, the basic vocabulary is being discussed in order to establish a classification of the compared idioms, taking into account both the tree model (divergence) and the facts of borrowing languages (convergence) using not only comparative historical linguistics, but also population genetics. The purpose of the article is to establish the classification status of the eastern dialect of the Even language based on the study of the Leipzig-Jakarta list. Some linguists believe that the Even language originated from the Tungus intermediate proto-language, while others adhere to the position that Even arose on the basis of the Evenki language. On the basis of a comparative study of the list, it was established that the eastern dialect of the Even language 1) was formed from the Tungus-Manchu proto-language before the 3rd century AD. in places adjacent to the maritime region; 2) developed a) in the Tungus intermediate proto-language in places adjacent to the sea region from the west and north after the 5th century A.D., b) in the Evenki language in the Cirkumbaikal region in the 12th – 16th centuries A.D., c) in Yakutia after the 14th century, after the separation of the Even language from the Evenki language, moreover, active word formation processes are currently observed.

Key words: comparative studies, the Leipzig-Jakarta list, the Tungus-Manchu languages, an eastern dialect of the Even language.

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