Категория: # 3, 2021

Peculiarities of using a mobile pseudolite for increase of positioning accuracy on aircraft landing *

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_14

Oleg Nikolaevich Skrypnik

Roman Olegovich Arefyev

Natalya Gennadyvna Arefyeva (Astrakhanceva)

Tatyana Yuryevna Portnova

Abstract. The authors study accuracy characteristics (dilution of preсision) of an integrated navigation-and-time field in the terminal area created by GLONASS with its mobile pseudolite augmentation. A mobile pseudolite is placed onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The purpose of the article is optimization of UAV flight path which will provide the best aircraft positioning accuracy. The problem of finding an optimal track for the UAV was solved using Hooke-Jeeves method for an aircraft approaching along a flexible track. The article presents the results of the conducted experiments as the UAV optimal flight paths and their charts built according to DOP values for cases of using stationary and mobile pseudolites. Practical recommendations on the choice of optimization criteria are given, and the conditions for using a mobile pseudolite placed on board an unmanned aerial vehicle are determined.

Keywords: pseudolite, mobile pseudolite, unmanned aerial vehicle, Position Dilution of Precision, GLONASS, optimization of flight trajectory, integrated navigation and time field.

* This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 19-08- 00010 A).

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The nanai language in genetic classification

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_44

Innokentiy N. Novgorodov

Lyubov Z. Zaksor

Abstract. The article discusses a new scientific paradigm due to interdisciplinary research, including the modern achievements of comparative historical linguistics and population genetics. Thus, in Germany, the Leipzig-Jakarta list was established in order to classify the compared idioms, which will take into account both the tree model (divergence) and the facts of borrowing languages (convergence). This approach is used in establishing the classification status of the Nanai language based on the study of the Leipzig-Jakarta list and genetic data. The study of the verbs of the Leipzig-Jakarta list, the features of the Tungus-Manchu languages, taking into account the data of the genetics of the Manchus and Nanai, an overview of the processes of divergence and convergence (mixing, hybridization) in the field of language and identity against the background of the challenges of globalization and the scientific and technological revolution of the modern world, modernization and transformation of the traditional societies allow us to conclude that the Nanai language in genetic classification reveals a greater affinity to the closely related languages (idioms) of the Evenki and Udege than to the Manchu language. Thus, all taxa of the Evenki, Udege and Nanai are opposed to the Manchu. This circumstance forms the position on the binary system of modern Tungus-Manchu languages, which, on the one hand, includes taxa of the Evenki, Udege and Nanai languages, on the other hand, the Manchu language.

Key words: genetic classification, comparative studies, population genetics, stable vocabulary, haplogroup, Tungus-Manchu languages and peoples, Nanai language.

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On divisibility of idiomatic meaning (based on the material of english national corpora)

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_166

Olga Yu. Syomina

Elena V. Skvortsova

Abstract. The article examines the problem of semantic cohesion, traditionally regarded as one of the characteristic features of an idiom, and reveals the potential for divisibility of idiomatic meaning into components correlating with components of the idiom’s external form. The authors summarize modern approaches to the issues of semantic divisibility and variation of idioms, emphasizing the efficiency of describing idiomatic meaning in terms of frame semantics. The study analyses the functioning of idioms with partially or completely transferred meaning in the texts of national English language corpora, and describes the potential for functional and semantic segregation of their individual structural components, taking into account frame approach to the modelling of meaning. The results obtained confirm the original hypothesis that even completely transferred idiomatic meaning can potentially be divided into elements that can be attributed to separate formal components of the idiom. The study characterizes different structural types of English idioms in terms of divisibility of their meaning and distinguishes between three levels of semantic divisibility correlated to the degree of autonomy demonstrated by structural components of the idioms. As a result, semantic cohesion is defined as a non-permanent feature that can vary under the influence of contextual factors.

Keywords: phraseology, idiom, semantic cohesion, divisibility of meaning, corpus.

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Development of interethnic tolerance of student youth on the material of the motion pictures

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_216

Irina V.Chelysheva

Abstract. The article discusses methodological and methodical approaches to the problem of the development of interethnic tolerance of the student audience based on the material of fiction movies. The author presents the implementing of a cycle of media education classes in the educational process of a university based on the identified main Russian and foreign theoretical and methodological concepts for the development of interethnic tolerance, which can be a promising basis for further successful development in Russian conditions in the context of using educational, educative tasks of media education; development of technologies and methods for conducting training sessions at the university with elements of media education, contributing to the development of interethnic tolerance.

The author presents an analysis of classes, the fundamental basis of which is modern domestic and foreign methods and technologies that are most widely used in modern media education practice. The work with feature films is based on the main types of analysis of works of media culture: autobiographical, structural, critical, semiotic, identification, analysis of cultural mythology, analysis of key characters, etc.

Keywords: media, media education, interethnic tolerance, students, motion pictures, creative activities, analysis of the media text.

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The system of communication exercises for the development of verbal skills of primary schoolchildren on the basis of folk literature

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_230

Sonombal T. Sodnomov

Abstract. The paper discusses the system of communication exercises based on the materials of small genres of the Buryats folk literature. Buryat folklore consists of myths, legends, üligers, proverbs, sayings, riddles, fairy tales, etc. In this paper proverbs, riddles and fairy tales served as materials for communication exercises. Communication exercises for the development of verbal skills of primary schoolchildren in the study of the epic “Geser” were presented in the paper “Studying the Buryat heroic epic “Geser” at school” in the International Information and Analytical Journal “Crede Experto: Transport, Society, Education, Language” No. 4, 2019.

In the process of acquaintance with small genres of Buryat folklore, primary schoolchildren learn about life, they develop the skills of artistic perception of the world around them.

This paper describes six groups of communication exercises that make up the system. This system of exercises can be used by a teacher of primary school at the lessons of literary reading in the Buryat language in order to enrich and develop the native Buryat speech of primary schoolchildren. The exercises are aimed at the formation of intonation skills, the ability to find and use the expressive means of the Buryat language in speech, at the formation of literary and creative skills, etc.

Key words: primary schoolchild, folk literature, native Buryat language, literary development in the Buryat language, development of verbal skills, system of exercises, communication exercises, expressive means of the native Buryat language.

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Modern problems of prevention of juvenile delinquency in the Irkutsk region

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_244

Ekaterina Z. Sidorova

Sergey V. Gabeev

Abstract. The topic of preventing juvenile delinquency is very broad and multifaceted. In this article, the authors address the current problems that, in their opinion, hinder the implementation of high-quality prevention of illegal behavior of adolescents at the level of the Irkutsk region. The issues of the current state of juvenile delinquency are discussed, and the structure of this type of crime is highlighted. Some general and specific problems of juvenile delinquency prevention (specific to the Irkutsk region) are revealed. In particular, such problems as the “transfer” of modern crime to the virtual sphere, the unfavorable socio-economic situation in the country and the region, the deformation of the family institution, the high level of criminalization of society, the lack of control of minors and their lack of activities in public, sports, cultural and other socially significant life are highlighted. At the end of the study, the authors come to the conclusion that it is necessary to adjust the methods used at the present stage of prevention of youth crime in our region. In order to influence the crime of minors in the Irkutsk region, it is necessary to develop a unified regional state program for the prevention of juvenile delinquency. The authors state that the development of such a program is a very complex, time-consuming and responsible work that must be carried out with the participation of specialists and criminologists.

Keywords: juvenile delinquency, criminological prevention, crime prevention, deviant behavior, crime in the Irkutsk region, general social prevention, early prevention.

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Development of interethnic tolerance among university students on the material of television media texts

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_202

Galina V. Mikhaleva

Abstract. The article discusses the methodological and methodical tools in the study of realizing educational objectives by means of media education based on the material of television media texts, including the technologies and methods of conducting university practical classes with elements of media education to foster students’ interethnic tolerance. Practical approaches are based on the methodology for performing literary-imitative, literary-analytical, theatrical role-playing activities on the material of media culture, based on the key concepts of media education: media agencies, media categories, media languages, media technologies, media representations, media audiences. Media education allows one to solve specific educational tasks in the discussion of television programs on the topic of interethnic tolerance in the student audience, which are as follows: forming a stable sense of rejecting the ideology of racial, national, interethnic, interfaith intolerance and extremism among university students; developing students’ critical skills for analysing media texts on the topic of interethnic tolerance; destroying social prejudices and stereotypes in the university environment; teaching young people to define methods of media manipulation and the propaganda of interethnic intolerance in the media based on a critical analysis of media texts; expanding and enriching the cultural, historical and social experience of the youth audience in the field of intercultural communication.

Keywords: interethnic tolerance, television media texts, students, dialogue of cultures, ethnic stereotypes, media education, media text, re-presentation, hate speech, national identity, ethnic culture, xenophobia.

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Active processes in the vocabulary of the german language in 2020–2021

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_151

Lyubov A. Nefedova

Abstract. The article discusses the active processes in the vocabulary of the modern German language in 2020–2021: the processes of borrowing, word formation and semantic derivation. The processes of borrowing and word formation from foreign language/borrowed elements are interpreted as exogenous processes that form a global identity, and are opposed to word-formation processes from autochthonous elements, defined as endogenous processes that contribute to the formation of national identity. Semantic derivation and hybrid word formation are understood as exogenous-endogenous processes of the formation of global and national identity. The article notes that modern borrowings in German are direct borrowings from the English language (7%), less often calques and half-calques, as well as replacing of German words with English words and pseudo-borrowings. It is shown that borrowing becomes the cause of a special lexical and phraseological synonymy in the German language. The creation of culturally-marked vocabulary, lexical polyonymy for expressing key concepts, metaphorization and contamination that implements a language game are described as features of modern word formation. Attention is drawn to the main groups of new phraseological units, as well as to the role of hybridization in word- and phrase formation. The processes of semantic derivation are described as the semantic development of vocabulary based on the concretization and specialization of the relationship.

Key words: borrowing, word formation, phrase formation, semantic derivation, exogenous process, endogenous process, loan translation, hybridization, metaphorization, polyonymy, contamination.

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Abbreviation as a way of concept nomination in the special area of knowledge (on the material of terminological abbreviations of German dialectology)

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_181

Inna V. Senina

Natal’ya I. Mokrova

Natal’ya S. Novolodskaya

Abstract. On the example of abbreviated versions of terms in the field of dialectology of the German language, the article dwells the issue on the main theoretical topics and trends in the development of abbreviation processes. Approaches to the interpretation of the terms “abbreviation” and “shortening” in domestic and foreign literature are being studied. Along with the identification and description of the main types of abbreviations, the problems of abbreviated homonymy and abbreviated synonymy are considered. The names of territorial dialects, in particular, their short forms, are defined as nomenclature designations that are not directly terms but are an integral part of dialectology and therefore belong to the terminological field of the discipline. From the point of view of the formation, development, and consolidation in the use of short forms of terms, the author’s, contextual, disciplinary, and common abbreviations are highlighted.

Keywords: dialectology, dialect, terminology science, terminology, term, concept, abbreviation, shortening.

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Metaphorical representation of the learning process in pedagogical internet discourse

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_87

Anastasia E. Muravieva

Ekaterina S. Muchkina

Abstract. In this article, the authors analyze the metaphors used to communicate one of the most important processes in human life – the process of learning – in the pedagogical Internet discourse. They conclude that this type of discourse features five dominant metaphors: LEARNING IS EATING, LEARNING IS A JOURNEY, LEARNING IS CLIMBING A MOUNTAIN, LEARNING IS BUILDING A PUZZLE, LEARNING IS BUILDING A HOUSE. The article will primarily benefit metaphor scholars and might also be relevant to anyone with an interest in the representation of different aspects of education.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor, education, learning, pedagogical discourse.

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