Active processes in the vocabulary of the german language in 2020–2021

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_151

Lyubov A. Nefedova

Abstract. The article discusses the active processes in the vocabulary of the modern German language in 2020–2021: the processes of borrowing, word formation and semantic derivation. The processes of borrowing and word formation from foreign language/borrowed elements are interpreted as exogenous processes that form a global identity, and are opposed to word-formation processes from autochthonous elements, defined as endogenous processes that contribute to the formation of national identity. Semantic derivation and hybrid word formation are understood as exogenous-endogenous processes of the formation of global and national identity. The article notes that modern borrowings in German are direct borrowings from the English language (7%), less often calques and half-calques, as well as replacing of German words with English words and pseudo-borrowings. It is shown that borrowing becomes the cause of a special lexical and phraseological synonymy in the German language. The creation of culturally-marked vocabulary, lexical polyonymy for expressing key concepts, metaphorization and contamination that implements a language game are described as features of modern word formation. Attention is drawn to the main groups of new phraseological units, as well as to the role of hybridization in word- and phrase formation. The processes of semantic derivation are described as the semantic development of vocabulary based on the concretization and specialization of the relationship.

Key words: borrowing, word formation, phrase formation, semantic derivation, exogenous process, endogenous process, loan translation, hybridization, metaphorization, polyonymy, contamination.

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