Категория: Linguistics

Addressee adaptation of a mediatext

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_136

Natalya A. Prom

Abstract. The article proposes the problem of taking into account the addressee’s factor by the author in the media discourse from the standpoint of linguistics and media rhetoric in particular. Modern media discourse offers the audience a large amount of material, the task of which is to purposefully influence the consciousness of the audience, and this influence is growing. The success of this impact is ensured by a number of factors. It seems necessary to identify communicative characteristics of a media text that provide understanding and trust of the audience to the author of the facts proposed. This is seen as the purpose of his work the article is devoted to. The research has shown that the impact of the text that takes into account the axiological picture of the audience’s world is effective. There are some examples considered that illustrate this position and demonstrate the manipulative mechanisms used by the media discourse generators to achieve their goals. Of particular interest is an example that reflects a radical change in the values the authors of media messages appeal to, depending on the changing expediency. No less important role in the attractiveness and effectiveness of the media text for the audience is played by rhetorical effects. The author has identified the main of them, i.e. the effect of live communication, the effect of involvement, the effect of curiosity, the effect of surprise and the effect of guesswork. Language ways to achieve these effects are demonstrated in the article.

Keywords: media discourse, media text, addressee, pragmatics, communication, rhetorical effect, adaptation, values.

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Digital tools in psycholinguistic research

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_123

Ksenia S. Kardanova-Biryukova

Abstract. The paper looks into new ways of designing and conducting a psycholinguistic experiment through the use of modern digital tools. It is a well-known fact that psycholinguistics first appeared as a science aimed at resolving research issues by means of an experiment. As a result, it focused on developing various experimental tools and approaches to process the experimental data obtained. Yet, as of today, there are various digital tools which can assist in conducting such research and facilitate some of the procedures involved. The author analyses a number of experiments run in person or as a team with PhD students to identify such problems and suggest ways of adopting digital tools to overcome them. Central to the research are online platforms for conducting large-scale social experiments and statistical packages for processing the experimental data. The findings of the current analysis suggest that digital tools may be instrumental in helping experiments run by Russian researchers stand up to the international academic standards and bringing such experiments which are characterized by non-trivial designs, novel objectives and consistent experimental logic to the fore on the international scale.

Keywords: psycholinguistics, experimental research, digital tools, statistical analysis, design of the experiment.

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The linguistic status of the names in the sphere of “New information technologies”

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_4_109

Svetlana Yu. Bogdanova

Semen I. Popov

Abstract. The article deals with the analysis of the possibility of referring the names of social networks, online services, messengers, video hosting platforms, etc. to the category of proper names. Russian and foreign linguists’ opinions on the problem of attributing commercial names to proper names or common names is presented. The names of services in the language system belong to pragmatonyms, the subcategory of proper names. Their characteristic features, such as word-building models, are revealed. The four main word-building models are: blending, metaphorical extension, creating new words which sound like English words, abbreviation. Linguistic creativity required from those who make new commercial names rests on the senses which the creators of services want to convey. Metonymy plays the main role in the development of meanings of new words, which takes place according to the scheme ‘company name – name of the service – personal account – message’, where some of the positions may remain empty. Verbs which derive from the names of services are usually capitalized.

Keywords: Online services, social networks, messengers, onomastics, proper name, common name, commercial name, pragmatonym.

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On divisibility of idiomatic meaning (based on the material of english national corpora)

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_166

Olga Yu. Syomina

Elena V. Skvortsova

Abstract. The article examines the problem of semantic cohesion, traditionally regarded as one of the characteristic features of an idiom, and reveals the potential for divisibility of idiomatic meaning into components correlating with components of the idiom’s external form. The authors summarize modern approaches to the issues of semantic divisibility and variation of idioms, emphasizing the efficiency of describing idiomatic meaning in terms of frame semantics. The study analyses the functioning of idioms with partially or completely transferred meaning in the texts of national English language corpora, and describes the potential for functional and semantic segregation of their individual structural components, taking into account frame approach to the modelling of meaning. The results obtained confirm the original hypothesis that even completely transferred idiomatic meaning can potentially be divided into elements that can be attributed to separate formal components of the idiom. The study characterizes different structural types of English idioms in terms of divisibility of their meaning and distinguishes between three levels of semantic divisibility correlated to the degree of autonomy demonstrated by structural components of the idioms. As a result, semantic cohesion is defined as a non-permanent feature that can vary under the influence of contextual factors.

Keywords: phraseology, idiom, semantic cohesion, divisibility of meaning, corpus.

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Active processes in the vocabulary of the german language in 2020–2021

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_151

Lyubov A. Nefedova

Abstract. The article discusses the active processes in the vocabulary of the modern German language in 2020–2021: the processes of borrowing, word formation and semantic derivation. The processes of borrowing and word formation from foreign language/borrowed elements are interpreted as exogenous processes that form a global identity, and are opposed to word-formation processes from autochthonous elements, defined as endogenous processes that contribute to the formation of national identity. Semantic derivation and hybrid word formation are understood as exogenous-endogenous processes of the formation of global and national identity. The article notes that modern borrowings in German are direct borrowings from the English language (7%), less often calques and half-calques, as well as replacing of German words with English words and pseudo-borrowings. It is shown that borrowing becomes the cause of a special lexical and phraseological synonymy in the German language. The creation of culturally-marked vocabulary, lexical polyonymy for expressing key concepts, metaphorization and contamination that implements a language game are described as features of modern word formation. Attention is drawn to the main groups of new phraseological units, as well as to the role of hybridization in word- and phrase formation. The processes of semantic derivation are described as the semantic development of vocabulary based on the concretization and specialization of the relationship.

Key words: borrowing, word formation, phrase formation, semantic derivation, exogenous process, endogenous process, loan translation, hybridization, metaphorization, polyonymy, contamination.

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Abbreviation as a way of concept nomination in the special area of knowledge (on the material of terminological abbreviations of German dialectology)

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_181

Inna V. Senina

Natal’ya I. Mokrova

Natal’ya S. Novolodskaya

Abstract. On the example of abbreviated versions of terms in the field of dialectology of the German language, the article dwells the issue on the main theoretical topics and trends in the development of abbreviation processes. Approaches to the interpretation of the terms “abbreviation” and “shortening” in domestic and foreign literature are being studied. Along with the identification and description of the main types of abbreviations, the problems of abbreviated homonymy and abbreviated synonymy are considered. The names of territorial dialects, in particular, their short forms, are defined as nomenclature designations that are not directly terms but are an integral part of dialectology and therefore belong to the terminological field of the discipline. From the point of view of the formation, development, and consolidation in the use of short forms of terms, the author’s, contextual, disciplinary, and common abbreviations are highlighted.

Keywords: dialectology, dialect, terminology science, terminology, term, concept, abbreviation, shortening.

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The role of grammatical means in the creation of the image of Joan of Arc by Charles Péguy

Dubnyakova O. A.

Ivanova A. G.

The article presents a study of the image of Joan of Arc in the work “Mystery of the Charity of Joan of Arc” by a French writer Charles Péguy (1873-1914), poet, playwright and journalist; as well as the important role of the grammatical means used by the writer to create the image of the Maid of Orléans.

Keywords: anticlericalism, Joan of Arc, French grammar, Christian literature, Charles Péguy, socialism.

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Semantic neologisms in the english language

UDK 81’373.43 BBK 81.411.2-3

Nuzhnova E. E.

This article is devoted to the study of semantic innovations – new meanings of some words and word combinations existing in the Modern English language: the ways in which lexical units develop their new meanings, the sources where innovations draw their imagery from and the tendencies in enriching vocabulary are considered.

Key words: neologisms, semantic innovations, lexico-semantic variant, broadening of meaning, narrowing of meaning, metaphorization, terminologization, determinologization.

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Semantic-structural organization of paired designations (on material of the modern german language)

UDK 811.11-112 BBK 81.2

Portnova T.Yu.

The aim of the article is to analyze the interrelation of syntax and semantics of paired designations in the modern German language. The author describes the peculiarities and main principles of structural and semantic organization of paired designations using the semantic-syntactical law of ranking, which says that there is semantic hierarchy in the syntactical constructions and the word order reflects a particular hierarchy of parameters embodied in people’s consciousness. 

Key words: paired designations, ranking, word order, logic of the relationship between large and small quantities.

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The cognitive-matrix analysis of compounds (by the case of the words with BROT AS 2 IC)

UDK 81-139 BBK 81.2-3

V. A. Stepanenko

B. B. Timofeewa

The paper studies compound words with Brot as 2 IC using the cognitive-matrix analysis by N. N. Boldyrev. Our own cognitive matrix was developed based on the data we obtained using the main model.

Keywords: Brot, compound word, cognitive matrix analysis, cognitive matrix.

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