Категория: Avionics, aircraft electrical systems, aircraft navigation complexes and methods for their exploitation

Development of a conflict detection and resolution methodololy used in the operational flight 4D-trajectory planning

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_

Nguyen Thi Linh Phuong

Evgeny S. Neretin

Nguyen Nhu Man

Abstract. Conflict detection and resolution is one of the key tasks in ensuring the safety and efficiency of air transport. In Trajectory Based Operation (TBO), aircraft are given greater flexibility in planning trajectories along the route and greater responsibility for self-separation from each other, so the pilot will need assistance to safely and efficiently perform the task of decentralized conflict resolution during the en-route flight. In this work, we develop a method for identifying and resolving conflict situations in cruising phase based on four-dimensional grid nodes (4D-grid) and the A-star shortest path search algorithm (A* for short) to form an optimal four-dimensional trajectory (4D-trajectory) bypass all airspace obstacles. This new approach helps to avoid false warnings about potential conflicts due to the ability to early detect them and accurately determine the distance from aircraft to areas of dangerous proximity (prohibited zones (PZ), zones of bad weather, other aircraft) and then autonomously form a time-spatial trajectory to bypass them. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we conduct three experiments in different airspace conditions (with and without the areas of dangerous proximity). The results of the experiments prove that potential dangerous proximities of aircraft in flight are effectively identified and resolved using the proposed methodology.

Keywords: Conflict detection and resolution, self-separation, 4D trajectory, 4D-grid, algorithm A*.

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The experience of technical operation of air data inertial reference system of A-320 aircraft

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_134

Alexander L. Kivokurtsev

Oleg A. Sokolov

Alexander Yu. Yurin

Abstract. The article presents the experience of technical operation of the air data inertial reference system (ADIRS) both on real aircraft in airlines and on a procedure trainer during the “Simulator training” practice at a university. The features of the ADIRS construction are considered, its central role as the main source of flight and navigation information in the composition of the integrated onboard complex is shown. The main method of technical operation of the system under consideration is “on-condition” operation, i.e. operation until a dangerous failure occurs that can affect flight safety.

Through full-scale experiments based on the analysis of the system performance in real conditions typical failures are shown, emergency situations and possibility of system reconfiguration are considered. In the presence of a procedure trainer it is possible through experiments to study the features of the system operation, to develop a methodology for identifying and eliminating some failures.

The article proposes to use a continuous training system, consisting of three stages, when training aviation specialists. The first stage is a discussion of the construction features, the experience of technical operation of the systems under study at a local scientific and practical conference. The second is performing practical tasks for the systems under study on a procedure trainer. The third is conducting the technical operation work on the real aircraft systems.

Keywords: Air Data Inertial Reference System (ADIRS), Air Data Reference (ADR), Inertial Reference (IR), strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS), technical operation experience, “on-condition” technical operation, aviation specialists’ training, continuous training system.

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Selection and substantiation of parameters and performance indicators of the in- service inspection system of onboard aircraft equipment units

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_4_70

Sergey V. Kuznetsov

Abstract. The in-service inspection (ISI) system of onboard equipment of civil aircraft provides management of technical operation processes. Its quality is manifested in the process of in-service inspection. The ISI involves determining the technical state of monitor objects at various stages of operation: in flight, during operational maintenance (pre-flight and post-flight check), during periodic maintenance, after removing the equipment from the aircraft. The analysis of the problem of forming and improving the ISI system for onboard equipment shows its complexity requiring a systematic approach based on the appropriate mathematical apparatus. The ISI is characterized by the inspection accuracy, i.e. a property of technical state inspection which determines the degree of display objectivity as a result of monitoring the actual technical state of a monitor object. As quantitative parameters and performance indicators of the ISI system for onboard equipment, the characteristics of the inspection accuracy serve. To determine them, rational sets of technical states and decisions about the technical states of onboard units were formed. Based on belonging to these sets, three groups of the inspection accuracy characteristics were identified. The first group consists of conditional probabilities of transitions in the in-service inspection for various types of control. The second group consists of unconditional probabilities of transitions in the in-service inspection for various types of control. The third group consists of a posteriori decision-making probabilities in the process of in-service inspection for various types of control. Analytical dependencies for calculating the inspection accuracy characteristics of the three groups for onboard units and the relationship between them were determined.

Key words: in-service inspection system, technical operation process, technical state, inspection accuracy, onboard equipment.

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Experimental study of the distribution laws of output signals of microelectromechanical navigation sensors of an unmanned aerial vehicle

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_101

Andrei A. Sanko

Aliaksey A. Sheynikov

Gafur Sh. Tuganov

Abstract. The article presents the results of studies of distribution laws of output signals of microelectromechanical sensors used for platformless inertial navigation systems (INS) installed on lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). As object of study, the GY-91 sensor was used which is made with the use of microelectromechanical technology and has an inertial measuring unit consisting of three elements located orthogonally: a turn meter, an accelerometer, a magnetometer and a single-channel barometer. Formulas for approximating the mean square deviations of overload, pitch angle and angular velocity indications for various test conditions are given. It is recommended to use the obtained dependences when calibrating accelerometers and angular velocity sensors. Recommendations on the use of different filtering methods depending on the distribution laws of the output parameters of the sensor are given. Various filters used for platformless INS sensors, such as the Kalman filter, the median filter, the AB filter and the complementary filter, are considered. A comparative analysis of algorithms for filtering the output signals of microelectromechanical sensors according to the value of signal-to-noise ratio for an aircraft-type UAV at different propeller speeds was performed. Recommendations are given on the use of the obtained research results for the algorithmic support of lightweight UAV navigation systems.

Key words: sensors, gyroscope, accelerometer, errors, distribution law.

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Analysis of problems arising during the flight on four-dimensional navigation routes in civil aviation and determining the basic ways of their solution

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_1_37

Alexander Sergeevich Budkov

Abstract. The work is devoted to the analysis of problems during the flight on four-dimensional navigation routes in civil aviation, determining the minimum necessary requirements for a decision support system that would provide a solution to these problems, as well as developing a methodology for searching an optimal four-dimensional route.

Key words: civil aircraft, four-dimensional navigation, flight management system, decision support system.

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Analysis of avionics automation verification means used in the modern civil aircraft development

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_1_30

Sergei Alexandrovich Diachenko

Artem Sergeevich Savelev

Abstract. The paper describes the analysis results of the existing automated means used in civil aircraft avionics verification. The main solutions on the market and their advantages, disadvantages are considered. Based on the analysis results, it is found that a promising direction in this type of means development is to provide testing automation of graphic and aural information within the hardware-in-loop verification (including bench tests). The task is relevant not only for the aviation industry, but also for any technical objects using a human-machine interface (space industry, automotive, shipbuilding, etc.).

Key words: analysis, automation, verification, software, civil aircraft, avionics, computer-aided design system, flight safety.

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Development of methodology for managing the information field inside the cockpit onboard a civil airplane

Ivanov A. S.

Neretin E. S.

The authors proposed a methodology for managing the information field inside the cockpit onboard a civil airplane which allows the crew’s workload to be reduced due to applying a unified approach to controlling all indication elements. 

Key words: civil airplane, cockpit, ergonomics, onboard equipment.

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Use of microcontrollers for modernization of analog units of aviation equipment systems

Mishin S. V.

The article presents the materials confirming the possibility and explaining the algorithm of partial modernization of on-board equipment analog units on the example of Mi-8 helicopter de-icing system. The proposed solution makes it possible to reduce weight and cost, increase reliability of complex technical systems operation.

Key words: modernization, aviation equipment, digital control unit, microcontroller.

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Ranging analysis of analitical and probabilistic methods of complex system state prediction

Brusnikin P. M.

Dudkin S. O.

Neretin E. S.

The paper deals with analytical prediction methods, probabilistic methods and artificial neural network methods used for solving the problem of predicting the state of onboard complex systems, in particular mathematical modelling, operator method, method of predicting an univariate time series, method of potential functions,  zone method and integrated-point method.

Key words: civil aircraft, integrated module avionics, onboard maintenance system, distributed architecture, onboard radio equipment, predictive models.

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Method for determining the fail-safe performance of critical equipment at the stage of system engineering

Savel’ev A. S.

Neretin E. S.

Djachenko S. A.

Bersutskaya O. D.

Ivanov A. S.

To ensure the safety of flight operations is a priority for civil aircraft designers. In this connection, in parallel with the development, the assessment of safety takes place, both at the level of an aircraft and at the level of its separate system.  The present paper is devoted to the analysis of potential problems which can arise during procedures of assessing the system safety on the example of onboard equipment and ways of their elimination. The paper is the first in a circle of articles devoted to developing a strategy of the model-based approach to safety assessment.

Key words: engineering, civil aviation, onboard equipment, safety assessment, reliability, model-based approach.

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