Категория: Air transport security

On the need and possibility of reducing the impact of noise in order to minimize injuries at airlines

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_

Evgeniy Yu. Starkov

Nikolay I. Nikolaykin

Elena Ed. Sigaleva

Lilia Yu. Marchenko

Igor N. Merzlikin

Natalia V. Degterenkova

Galina P. Stepanova

Abstract. Summary data on injuries in Russia and at civil aviation enterprises over the years of the current century are presented. Continuous reduction in injury rates has been shown. Significant actual factors of the working environment that contribute to occupational injuries have been statistically identified, one of the main ones being noisy workplaces. Exposure to noise has a negative impact on hearing and the functional state of the central nervous system thus reducing performance, leading to errors, and contributing to injuries. The possibility to counter the noise effects by otoprotection with an argon-oxygen gas mixture has been experimentally confirmed.

Keywords: injuries, noisy workplaces, human factor, civil aviation enterprises, otoprotection, argon.

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Methodological support for the implementation of international flight safety standards in russian civil aviation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_37

Anatoly G. Guziy

Anastasia A. Shpakovskaya

Alexey S. Muravyov

Abstract. The present paper delves into the challenge of implementing international flight safety standards into the Russian regulatory framework governing the establishment, application, and refinement of aviation safety management systems (SMS) in the civil aviation sector in Russia. It underscores the reliance of SMS regulatory adherence on the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) set forth by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The paper conducts an examination of prevailing discrepancies, indeterminacies, and ambiguities in delineating core terms and concepts within the English and Russian renditions of ICAO SARPs documentation. Furthermore, it offers an evaluation of the implementation hurdles associated with SARPs in regulatory documentation pertaining to civil aviation flight safety in Russia. The deficiencies in the regulatory infrastructure for flight safety in Russia are substantiated. Drawing from practical insights gained in formulating and improving regulatory and methodological support for SMS in prominent Russian airlines, the paper proposes measures to mitigate inaccuracies and uncertainties in the integration of ICAO SARPs editions within the Russian regulatory framework for aviation industry service providers.

Keywords: international standards, regulatory support, implementation, methodological support, aviation safety, risk, factors.

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Method for predicting the probability of dangerous gusts of wind in the runway area when landing an aircraft

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_57

Vitalii D. Rubtsov

Elena I. Trusova

Alexandra L. Rybalkina

Abstract. The authors propose a method of predicting the probability of occurrence of dangerous gusts of wind in the runway area during landing of an aircraft, based on the use of the distribution of absolute maximum wind gusts during the observation period. The method makes it possible to design an aircraft landing system that allows, depending on the probability of wind gusts, to make various management decisions: permission to land, sending the aircraft on a go-around, or sending it to an alternate airfield.

Keywords: gusts of wind, probabilistic description, flight safety, aircraft, theory of emissions of random processes, recording device on a probing beam.

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Pilot age and injuries in aviation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_24

Nikolay I. Nikolaykin

Elena Ed. Sigaleva

Alexandra L. Rybalkina

Olga B. Pasekova

Abstract. The results of an analysis of the influence of pilot age on injury statistics in civil aviation are described. The proportion of aviation accidents caused by human actions remains the same and even tends to increase. Workers continue to get injured during ground handling operations for aircraft. The authors’ assessment of the various risk factors contribution to ongoing negative events confirms the human factor prevalence. Statistics on the activities of civil aviation was analyzed. Examples of aviation accidents involving general aviation aircraft and medical aircraft transporting patients who required emergency medical care were considered.

It has been shown that there is a peak in the aviation accidents for pilots aged 50-59 years, and this peak is observed among experienced pilots with more than 5,000 hours of flight time. For pilots aged 40-49 years, half of the accidents occurred among aircraft commanders with 1,000 … 5,000 hours of flight time, and about one third among pilots with less than 500 hours of flight time.

It was revealed that for domestic general aviation in 2020, the main causes of aviation accidents were such elements of human factor as piloting errors associated with deficiencies in training and little flight experience; loss of spatial orientation in weather conditions that do not comply with visual flight rules, when the underlying surface is white, when caught in a snow whirlwind, as well as a collision with power line wires.

Keywords: aviation, flight safety, industrial safety, human factor, pilot age.

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Analysis of development of statistical methods for reliability assessment as quality properties of facilities and products

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_6

Nikolai S. Khersonsky

Ludmila G. Bolshedvorskaya 

Abstract. Reliability is the most important characteristics of any object or product, since it is always important that what the supplier offers and supplies is of high quality not only at the time of purchase, but during the entire period of use. Currently, for the aviation and aerospace industries, for the military-industrial complex, the reliability of products is of particular relevance. This article provides an overview of scientific achievements in the field of reliability of technical facilities and products. Of course, this review is not overall. However, the consideration reflects a significant part of books, monographs and other fundamental materials that have not lost their relevance to the present. The results of the study are a kind of guide to the labyrinth of the most difficult problems of solving reliability problems and methods that can be used to solve them.

Keywords: reliability methods, product quality, objects of aviation, aerospace industries, military-industrial complex.

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Influence of individual circadian rhythms on maintenance staff fatigue

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_4_20

Alexandra L. Rybalkina

Abstract. The paper presents the results of a study of individual circadian rhythms and age influence on maintenance staff fatigue. Fatigue indicators were assessed using seven indicators for four types of shifts: day shift, night shift, daily shift, five-day work week. Changes in the values of maintenance staff fatigue indicators were analyzed for each type of work shift, depending on the type of individual circadian rhythms (larks, owls, pigeons) and depending on age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years old). The data obtained show that the age and individual circadian rhythms influence the civil aviation maintenance staff fatigue.

Keywords: individual circadian rhythms, fatigue, maintenance staff, human factor, questionnaires.

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Supplier selection and evaluation methods based on categorization of product and component parameters

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_4_6

Nikolai S. Khersonsky

Ludmila G. Bolshedvorskaya

Abstract. The risk of release of non-conforming products may arise under the influence of various factors. The results of earlier studies showed that the most significant factors that reduce the quality of products include a decrease in the efficiency of equipment, the level of professional competence of performers, the reliability of partners and suppliers of raw materials, materials, components. This work is devoted to the development of a mechanism for choosing a reliable supplier.

Keywords: product safety and operability, categorization of controlled parameters, selection and evaluation of suppliers, cost reduction.

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Probabilistic description of wind gusts in the runway area affecting the safety of aircraft flights

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_3_22

Elena I. Trusova

Vitalii D. Rubtsov

Alexandra L. Rybalkina

Abstract. The influence of wind gusts on the safety of aircraft flights is described. The impulse nature of wind gusts is substantiated. Experimental studies of wind gusts carried out with the help of a parametric recording device on an ultrasonic beam and an anemometer are analyzed, and it is shown that wind gusts have an impulsive nature, similar to atmospheric noise envelope emissions. The results of the analytical description of the probabilistic characteristics of atmospheric noise envelope emissions known from the literature are applied to wind gusts on the runway. Characteristics are given for the average duration of wind gusts, intervals between wind gusts and the average duration of intervals, the distribution of the duration of wind gusts, the average number and distribution of maxima of wind gusts.

Keywords: gusts of wind, probabilistic description, flight safety, aircraft, logarithmically normal model.

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Determination of the necessary quantity of spare parts to maintain the performance of devices

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_3_6

Nikolai S. Khersonsky

Ludmila G. Bolshedvorskaya 

Abstract. The paper is a logical continuation of a series of publications devoted to solving problems aimed at managing the process of assessing the production of non-conforming products through the use of statistical methods. This paper presents mathematical models for determining the required quantity of spare parts for devices consisting of a large number of identical units and assessing the dependence of the quantity of spare units on the number of operating devices and repair teams servicing them. The developed mathematical models are universal and can be used for any industry: aviation, atomic, chemical industry, etc.

Key words: mathematical model, queuing systems, devices, failure rate, mean time to failure, spare parts, units, repair team.

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Analysis of the de-icing procedures effect on the flight safety level in the operation of a long-haul passenger airplane

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_2_15

Sergey V. Skorobogatov

Abstract. The purpose of this article is to investigate the barrier ice accretion after aircraft de-icing, as well as to analyze the impact of it on flight safety. The influence degree of the flight speed factor, the factor of the ice ridges location relative to the aircraft Pitot tubes on the airflow disturbance creation and the total pressure indicators pulsations is studied. It was analyzed the aviation accidents related to the aircraft icing process. A detailed study of the incident caused by the barrier ice in the fuselage nose section was performed; weather conditions and de-icing procedure by the ground personnel were analyzed. It has been presented a picture of the turbulent flow pulsations behind the ice ridges, making it possible to determine the flight conditions when the crew may receive unreliable information about the airspeed being an important parameter necessary for the autopilot normal operation.

Keywords: icing, de-icing, flight safety, ice ridges, Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations.

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