Категория: Air traffic monitoring and management systems

Synthesis of an algorithm for estimating parameters of a multiposition surveillance system and research of filtering divergence

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_78

Vyacheslav V. Erokhin

Boris V. Lezhankin

Dmitry Y. Urbansky

Abstract. The accuracy of aircraft position measurements directly affects flight safety and is one of the most important tactical characteristics. The introduction of new advanced surveillance tools, such as multi-position surveillance systems (MPSS), can significantly increase the level of flight safety, as well as improve the efficiency of airspace use. The authors consider the task of improving the quality of MPSS functioning and increasing the accuracy of estimating the aircraft coordinates. The accuracy of position-fixing is determined by the error in measuring the time of signal arrival under the influence of noise and interference. Random disturbances must be taken into account to ensure high-quality MPSS operation. This is achieved by applying the methods of Kalman filtration theory. Therefore, to solve the problem of estimating the MPSS state variables, it is proposed to use a Kalman filter (KF). The effectiveness of using the Kalman filter depends on the adequacy of mathematical models and real processes. Model inaccuracies associated with the functioning of navigation systems lead to KF divergence. The paper presents the results of theoretical studies and simulating the MPSS functioning processes based on the implementation of the KF algorithm.

Keywords: Kalman filter, divergence of the filtering process, estimation algorithm, multi-position surveillance system, random disturbances, aircraft.

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Simulation of ADS-B data confirmation with temperature correction when estimating flight altitude on local air lines (part 2)

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_90

Andrey S. Kalintsev

Abstract. In the first part of the article, the author proposed a modified method for confirming the ADS-B data, which estimates and compares the aircraft flight altitude: barometric altitude (received from a barometric pressure altimeter) and geometric altitude (received from a GNSS receiver). In the presented work, application of the modified technique for confirming the ADS-B geometric altitude data is simulated. When simulating, real data were used which were received from the ADS-B ground station located at the Mezen aerodrome. Real values of pressure and temperature were used. The methodology takes into account the values of quality indicators of ADS-B data. For one flight on local airlines, an excess of the permissible interval was shown (GNSS data, according to the methodology, are not confirmed). The result obtained is consistent with the geometric vertical accuracy parameter GVA. To verify the modified method of the temperature determination according to geometric and barometric altitude, the obtained temperature data are compared with the values of the ECMWF forecasting model. The average RMSE value for 11 flights was 1.58ºС. For climbing aircraft the maximum RMSE value was 1.93ºС, for landing aircraft, maximum RMSE = 2.7°C.

Key words: flight safety, ADS-B, model, local airlines, barometric altitude, geometric altitude, TAS, IAS.

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Using the TDOA method for validation of broadcast automatic dependent surveillance

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_4_50

Alexander P. Plyasovskih

Artem V. Koposov

Vladislav Yu. Davidenko

Abstract. The paper considers the possibility of using the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) method, which can be applied to confirm the reliability of information coming from multiple sources. TDOA method can be applied to validate the information received from several ground automatic dependent surveillance stations of broadcast type (ADS-B). The paper is aimed at studying the TDOA method and its application to ADS-B stations. This method makes it possible to use the ADS-B as the only means of surveillance at the airfield. Currently, according to ICAO recommendations, ADS-B stations are not allowed to be used as a stand-alone surveillance aid due to the problems related to the possibility of distorting a signal or introducing some false information into messages, so the operation of this type of stations is possible only together with other means of surveillance, such as multi-position surveillance systems (MLAT) or secondary surveillance radar systems (SSR) thus increasing the cost of organizing surveillance on the airfield. Thus, the relevance of the work is related to the need to find an alternative method of confirming the validity of an ADS-B message.

Key words: ADS-B, validation, spoofing, time difference, hyperbole.

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Modified methodology for confirming ADS-B data with correction of temperature values when estimating the flight altitude

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_4_28

Andrey S. Kalintsev

Abstract. The International Civil Aviation Organization indicates the need to confirm the ADS-B data. The ADS-B messages include information about the horizontal and vertical location. Information about the altitude of an aircraft in civil aviation is of great importance. The article proposes a modified methodology for confirming ADS-B data when performing flights on local airlines, which allows us to estimate and compare the geometric and barometric altitude of aircraft flight transmitted in a standard ADS-B message. The proposed modification of the method consists is correcting the temperature values, using the full barometric Laplace formula, taking into account the ADS-B quality parameters. In a level flight, with no ground velocity vector data, temperature is corrected using the airspeeds (TAS, IAS) transmitted in the ADS-B message. The method uses a maximum permissible error of 90 m. It is also proposed to determine the air temperature according to geometric and barometric altitude data transmitted in the standard ADS-B message. The determination of air temperature at altitudes involves the use of the ADS-B data from the aircraft that completed take-off. To determine the temperature according to the data of the aircraft completed landing, statistics of data from several aircraft is needed.

Key words: flight safety, ADS-B, temperature, barometric altitude, geometric altitude, TAS, IAS.

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Increasing airfield capacity with the integrated aircraft arrival/departure manager (AMAN/DMAN)

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_3_30

Alexander Yu. Knyazhsky

Alexander P. Plyasovskih

Alexander V. Tarasenko

Abstract. The article proposes a method for increasing the capacity of an aerodrome and reducing the average delay of arriving / departing aircraft by optimizing the queue of them, taking into account the specified minimum allowable time intervals between aircraft, depending on their weight categories of movement stages (take-off landing). An analysis of the effectiveness of this method was carried out, for the evaluation of which a stream of events (departures and arrivals) with a Poisson distribution was used. The dependences of the average delays of departures and arrivals on the flow intensity of departures and arrivals are estimated as well as the potential for increasing the aerodrome capacity by this method. The effectiveness of the departure control system was compared in terms of absolute priority for arriving aircraft and in terms of the equal priority for arriving and departing aircraft. It is shown that an integrated arrival/departure manager with the equal priority for departing and arriving aircraft is more efficient than with absolute priority for arriving aircraft.

Key words: AMAN, DMAN, air traffic control, departures, arrivals, ATC AS, capacity.

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Concerning the geometric visualization of particle motion in space and time on the example of air traffic

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_1_6

Aleksandr P. Plyasovskikh

Abstract. The article presents a new original method of geometric visualization of particle (or aircraft) motion in space and time. The urgency of the proposed method stems from disadvantages of the traditional method of presenting the motion in space-time having as one of its coordinates the   time which is independent on spatial coordinates. In this space-time, the concept of distance between two points is not defined, the concepts of angle, triangle, geometric figures are not defined as well, it does not allow Euclidian geometry to be used. The author proposes the use of four-dimensional Euclidian space with the fourth axis z = bt where b is a speed constant, t is time, for presenting the motion of a particle (aircraft) in space and time. The particle (aircraft) motion presented with the use of the space proposed by the author is a visualized one, the track makes geometric sense of a Euclidian geometry line. The examples of presenting the four-dimensional motion of an aircraft along its route are given, the concept of four-dimensional corridor of aircraft motion is defined. It is shown that the proposed method could be used for description and research of particle (aircraft) motion in space and time. The method opens up a new direction of research of particles and other material objects moving in space and time with the use of multi-dimensional, in particular, four-dimensional geometry. The importance of the approach proposed in the article is that it opens new directions of scientific research in such sciences as physics (not relativistic mechanics), navigation and air traffic control, space mechanics and many other sciences in which processes of motion of different objects in space and time are researched. The author is going to continue publishing the results obtained due to the proposed method which are not included in the present paper because of space limitations.

Key words: air traffic control, 4D trajectory, 4D space, material particle, multidimensional geometry, space-time.

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Reduction of fuel consumption of outboard aircraft due to departure queue optimization

UDK 351.814.33 BBK 39.57

Knjazhskij A. Ju.

Pljasovskih A. P.

Bestugin A. R.

At busy airports aircraft departures are often delayed for a long time because of runway congestion. There is a known algorithm for optimizing the flow of outbound aircraft by the criterion of minimal runway-occupancy time which allows the average aircraft delay to be reduced and the runway capacity to be increased. In the paper the influence of the optimization algorithm on fuel consumption is analyzed and the economic benefit of its use is estimated. The modelling results showed optimization usefulness provided that the traffic is of high intensity.

Key words: air traffic control, capacity, runway, queue, Poisson flow, optimization.

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A study of the accuracy of the definition of coordinates of air targets in satellite-pseudolite multipositional surveillance system

UDC 621.396.98 BBK 32.95

Kiryushkin V. V., D’yakonov E. A.

The article describes the study of the accuracy of determination of coordinates of air targets in multipositional surveillance system using the signals of navigation satellites of global navigation satellite systems and pseudolite signals to illuminate air targets. It is shown that the use of pseudolite signals allows to reduce the peak error 8-10 times and decrease the average error of measurement of coordinates of air targets 2-3 times in a multipositional satellite surveillance system.

Key words: global navigation satellite system, multipositional surveillance system, the error of measurement of coordinates, operating zone.

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Concerning the need and possibility of decreasing the human factor influences on flight safety

UDC 629.7; 629.95; 656.085.22 BBK 39.5

Nikolaykin N. I., Tsetlin V. V., Savchukov S. A., Pozheluyeva Z. V., Starkov E. Y.

The article analyzes the influence of environmental helio-geophysical factors perturbation on physical and chemical properties of water, such as specific conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, a hydrogen index that are authentically registered in water electrochemical cells by environmetrical methods. Examples of aviation incidents are given and their reasons according to official investigation materials are explained. The authors draw a conclusion that the helio-geophysical factors can influence a person behavior and its possible deviations generally called «a human factor» – one of the reasons of various aircraft accidents.

Keywords: flight safety; aviation incident; human factor; cosmophysical and geophysical factors; danger.

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