Категория: Aviation radio communication, radiolocation, radio navigation and methods of their operation

Detection and demodulation of signals with modulation indexes greater than one in radio monitoring of aviation radio communication

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_119

Muslim A. Mezhetov

Alexey A. Shalaev

Vladislav P. Churbakov

Abstract. Communication between an aircraft and ground services is the main means of organizing air traffic control and providing the safety and regularity of air transportation. In order to maintain the operability of radio communication channels is to perform radio monitoring. This article considers a radio monitoring algorithm. It makes possible to classify amplitude-modulated signals by modulation depth, to show the possibility of detection of overmodulated oscillations and to restore the initial information message with sufficient accuracy for its perception.

Key words: overmodulation, double-sideband suppressed carrier modulation, signal analysis, interference detection, cognitive radio, radio monitoring.

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Control of the flight path of an unmanned aerial vehicle with different configurations of navigation information sources

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_113

Boris V. Lezhankin

Vyacheslav V. Erokhin

Nikolay P. Malisov

Abstract. In real conditions of application for high-precision positioning and trajectory control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) when flying along a route, insufficient noise immunity and operating accuracy of satellite navigation system receivers are manifested. In this regard, it is relevant to study possible methods and means of providing high-precision navigation definitions based on complex processing of signals from various sources of navigation information when solving the problem of displaying a UAV in a terminal set.

The article presents the results of developing a UAV trajectory control algorithm based on methods of statistical optimal control theory, the implementation of which will improve the accuracy of maintaining a given flight route. The characteristics for analyzing errors in maintaining the flight path are considered.

The results of modeling and research of the characteristics of the trajectory control algorithm for various configurations of navigation information sources (NIS) are presented and the dependence of the accuracy of maintaining a given UAV flight route on errors in estimating navigation parameters is shown.

Keywords: trajectory control, unmanned aerial vehicle, Letov-Kalman algorithm, sources of navigation information, automatic dependent surveillance.

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Concerning the aberration law application in radio navigation and aircraft surveillance

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_4_63

Evgeny A. Rubtsov

Abstract. The author analyzes the potential use of the aberration law which describes the deviation of measured parameters of an observed object as it changes its position relative to the observer. The law was studied in terms of its application in radio navigation and aircraft surveillance. During research the author obtained dependences of deviations of observable and real (true) characteristics of an observed object for such aids of radio-technical support of flights as a primary radar, distance measuring equipment (DME) and a ground station of automatic dependent surveillance. In doing so, the speed of the observed object was set equal to 250 m/s (typical for existing airplanes) and 600 m/s (specific for perspective supersonic airplanes). It follows from the calculations that the aberration effect cannot be detected for determining slant range or pulse duration tasks due to the imperfection of the existing measuring instruments. However, the aberration effect can be detected in the tasks of determining the time interval between probing pulses of the primary radar or automatic dependent surveillance messages, as well as in the determination of the frequency of the DME signal. This is achieved due to a sufficiently large dynamic range of the measured values. For the method of evaluating the aberration effect given in the paper the author performed estimation of the sensitivity to the errors of the measured value and the velocity of the observed object. The research confirmed possibility to apply the law of aberration in practice for radio navigation aids and aircraft surveillance, which can increase accuracy of position-fixing and determination of aircraft movement parameters as well as to expand capabilities of the available equipment.

 Key words: aberration, true parameters, observed parameters, radio navigation aids, aircraft surveillance aids.

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The research of the immunity of the multisystem GNSS reciever

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_2_28

Roman O. Arefyev

Oleg N. Skrypnik

Muslim A. Mezhetov

Abstract. The article presents the results of a study of the noise immunity of the ATGM336H multi-system GNSS receiver to the influence of narrow-band interference at the L1 frequency set for one of the systems (GLONASS or GPS). The review of existing works on the study of noise immunity of satellite navigation receivers is carried out. The method of conducting experiments is presented. The simulator CH-3803M was used as a signal source from navigation satellites. The analysis of the results obtained during the experiments for the formulation of narrow-band interference of various capacities via GPS and GLONASS channels is carried out.

Keywords: GPS, GLONASS, dilution of precision, immunity.

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Confirmation of ADS-B messages by aircraft flight altitude

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_118

Alexander P. Plyasovskih

Evgeny A. Rubtsov

Andrey S. Kalintsev

Vladislav Y. Davidenko

Abstract. Proposed the method for confirming ADS-B data based on the analysis of information about the aircraft altitude and atmospheric parameters. To confirm the reliability of ADS-B messages, proposed to compare the geometric height obtained from satellite navigation system data with the height calculated for the real atmosphere (based on information from the meteorological service on pressure and temperature). To implement the proposed methodology, required the following input data: pressure at the level of the weather station, temperature at the level of the weather station and at flight altitudes, and data on geometric and barometric altitudes transmitted in the ADS message. It has been established that the greatest error in the calculations is introduced by the temperature at the aircraft flight altitude. In order to reduce the influence of errors in determining the temperature, proposed to use data from weather balloons. With developed methodology, a calculation was performed using real altitude data transmitted in the ADS-B message and the required data from the meteorological service. Messages received from the ADS-B ground station NS-1A manufactured by JSC VNIIRA, which is installed at the Mezen airfield, were used. The developed methodology is proposed to be used to confirm ADS-B data at regional aerodromes with low flight intensity.

Key words: ADS-B, weather balloon, barometric altitude, geometric altitude, pressure, temperature, Laplace formula, ISA.

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Use of LoRa modulation in radio communication, navigation and surveillance aids for performing air traffic control tasks

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_77

Muslim A. Mezhetov

Boris V. Lezhankin

Anna I. Tikhova

Ulyana S. Vakhrusheva 

Abstract. The paper considers the use of LoRa technology in the data transfer system for performing aircraft position-fixing by means of the network of multilateration ground stations. The urgency of the problem is that the methods used for transferring data do not meet the requirements for safety and security of the transmitted information so such systems are not protected against unauthorized access. The information transmitted is strategically important for performing air traffic management tasks on the territory of the Russian Federation. Unauthorized access can result in intercepting and spoofing the coordinate information of aircraft location. This is possible only in exceptional circumstances which lead to reduction in flight safety and transition of flight incidents to flight accidents. The security of transmitted information can be improved by applying noise-like signals which ensure better security indexes of transmitted signals and possess higher jamming resistance. A new LoRa technology of transferring data is widespread nowadays. The technology is based on the linear frequency modulation which has been used in radar systems for several decades.  The paper presents the algorithm of operating the multilateration data transfer system and its hardware-in-the-loop simulation implemented as a virtual device.

Key words: Linear frequency modulation, multilateration surveillance system, LoRa technology.

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Analytical study of the ionosphere influence on energy relations in satellite communication systems by the methods of physical plasma kinetics

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_1_98

Dmitry Vladimirovich Khazanov

Boris Valentinovich Lezhankin

Vyacheslav Vladimirovich Erokhin

Abstract. In civil aviation, an urgent and important task is to provide air traffic participants with uninterrupted radio communication. Satellite communication is a global mobile network covering the entire surface of the Earth, including polar regions, which provides a two-way data and voice communication exchange. An analysis of the principles of functioning of satellite communication systems (SCS) showed that the determination of energy characteristics is of great importance. Energy characteristics in satellite communication channels and the level of interference determine SCS operational capabilities and quality indicators. One of the critical factors that determine the effectiveness of the SCS functioning is the conditions for the propagation and absorption of radio waves, including ionospheric phenomena, which are not yet fully understood, and this determines the research relevance.

This article is devoted to theoretical studies of the ionospheric plasma by the methods of physical kinetics to increase the energy potential of the radio links of a satellite communication system.

Keywords: physical plasma kinetics, energy relations, satellite communication systems, Maxwell distribution function, ionospheric phenomena.

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On improving the efficiency of the training of engineering and technical personnel of radio equipment and radio communication services based on the method of computer emulation of radio equipment

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_4_56

Stepan V. Shalupin

Eduard A. Bolelov

Vyacheslav V. Erokhin

Abstract. The quality of operation of objects of radio technical support for flights largely determines both their capabilities for air navigation support and the safety of flights of civil aviation aircraft. In turn, the quality of the work performed for the maintenance of facilities is determined by the level of professional training of the engineering and technical personnel of the services for the operation of radio technical flight support. The analysis of the personnel training system has shown that the forms of training have not changed much and still include lectures, group and practical classes, and exercises at real objects of radio technical support for flights. The methodological support of the implemented forms of training conducted in the training units is visual materials in the form of posters, dummies, interactive tools and layouts that do not provide dynamic filling of the studied methods of functioning and maintenance and repair of specific types of equipment. At the same time, for the personnel of the operation services, the skills and abilities of monitoring the technical condition and modes of operation of the objects of radio technical support for flights, diagnosing failures and technologies for carrying out maintenance work are especially important.

Radical changes in the system of training workers and increasing the effectiveness of this training can be achieved with the introduction of computer simulators based on the method of equipment emulation.

This article is devoted to the analysis of the training system for engineering and technical personnel of the services for the operation of radio equipment and communication facilities, the disclosure of its shortcomings and the consideration of the method of computer emulation of objects of radio technical support for flights, as the basis for building simulator systems.

Keywords: radio engineering support of flights, maintenance, engineering and technical personnel, advanced training, emulation, computer simulator.

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The experience of using GNSS software-defined recievers

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_88

Roman O. Arefyev

Oleg N. Skrypnik

Natalya G. Arefyeva (Astrakhanceva)

Abstract. The paper describes the experience of using software-defined receivers for receiving signals from GPS and Beidou navigation satellites. The peculiarities of the GNSS SDR platform and implementation of the satellite navigation system receivers on its basis were considered. The structure of the GNSS SDR flow graph with description of the functional capacity of each block was shown. As an RF part of the receiver, a HackRF platform with an active antenna and Temperature Controlled Crystal Oscillator was used. The receiver was tested with help of the SN-3803M simulator radiating GPS signals. The dependences of the time required for position-fixing and the number of the navigational satellites which provide tracking on the given false alarm probability were obtained experimentally.

Through natural experiments the authors compared the performance (number of tracking satellites, positioning accuracy, dilution of precision) of the SDR-receiver and ATGM336H portable receiver applied to the GPS and Beidou systems. The main features of the receivers operation were identified and analyzed.

Keywords: GPS, SDR, Beidou, software-defined receiver, dilution of precision, positioning accuracy.

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Peculiarities of using a mobile pseudolite for increase of positioning accuracy on aircraft landing *

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_14

Oleg Nikolaevich Skrypnik

Roman Olegovich Arefyev

Natalya Gennadyvna Arefyeva (Astrakhanceva)

Tatyana Yuryevna Portnova

Abstract. The authors study accuracy characteristics (dilution of preсision) of an integrated navigation-and-time field in the terminal area created by GLONASS with its mobile pseudolite augmentation. A mobile pseudolite is placed onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The purpose of the article is optimization of UAV flight path which will provide the best aircraft positioning accuracy. The problem of finding an optimal track for the UAV was solved using Hooke-Jeeves method for an aircraft approaching along a flexible track. The article presents the results of the conducted experiments as the UAV optimal flight paths and their charts built according to DOP values for cases of using stationary and mobile pseudolites. Practical recommendations on the choice of optimization criteria are given, and the conditions for using a mobile pseudolite placed on board an unmanned aerial vehicle are determined.

Keywords: pseudolite, mobile pseudolite, unmanned aerial vehicle, Position Dilution of Precision, GLONASS, optimization of flight trajectory, integrated navigation and time field.

* This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 19-08- 00010 A).

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