Категория: Aeronautics

About the legitimacy of the technical operation process description by semi-markov models in relation to the aircraft fleet

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_2_34

Sergey S. Trishin

Evgeniya A. Achkasova

Oksana G. Boiko

Galina A. Isheeva

Abstract. The authors studied the time the Mi-8T Mi8-MTV aircraft spent in the states of technical operation. The statistical data of the operating airline of JSC “Norilsk Avia” were used. Statistical distribution laws are formalized for each time series of variations. The conformity of the theoretical and obtained statistical laws of time distribution according to the Pearson criterion has been verified. It is confirmed that the process of technical operation of aircraft in practical tasks can be considered as a semi-Markov one.

Keywords: semi-Markov process, time spent in the process state, statistical data processing, exponential distribution, technical operation of aircraft, integral distribution function.

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Automated device for determining the changes in phase and state of polymer materials

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_2_19

Nikolai G. Filippenko

Denis V. Bakanin

Vladimir S. Bychkovsky

Abstract. This paper is devoted to the development of a control system for the study of thermophysical properties and phase transformations in polymer and composite materials. The use of polymeric materials instead of non-ferrous and stainless metals is a necessary and promising process in the production and repair of units and mechanisms of aircraft. This trend has received particular development in recent decades, not only in aviation, but also in the entire transport engineering. Replacing metals with plastics and composites based on them reduces the main indicator in the products of this industry, namely its weight. Often, when designing and operating aircraft, it becomes simply impossible to manufacture competitive products without the use of polymers and composites in their design. The strength properties of polymers in a number of aircraft designs are compensated by the resources of their use, which are not always measured by significant time resources. Nevertheless, despite the unique capabilities of new structural polymers, the issue of changing their electro-physic-chemical properties in the process of exposure to temperature loads and other external factors during operation remains open. The algorithm of automated control and monitoring of the experimental study of the process of high-frequency electrothermy presented by the authors makes it possible to obtain more objective data on the results of the studies. The implemented algorithm of the automated control system, in the form of a software package, made it possible to obtain new and clarify the existing results of previously conducted experiments in relation to structural materials used in the manufacture and repair of aircraft and other vehicles.

Key words: transport, polymeric materials, composites, thermophysical properties, automated control system for scientific research, phase transformations.

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Experimental study of the distribution laws of output signals of microelectromechanical navigation sensors of an unmanned aerial vehicle

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_101

Andrei A. Sanko

Aliaksey A. Sheynikov

Gafur Sh. Tuganov

Abstract. The article presents the results of studies of distribution laws of output signals of microelectromechanical sensors used for platformless inertial navigation systems (INS) installed on lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). As object of study, the GY-91 sensor was used which is made with the use of microelectromechanical technology and has an inertial measuring unit consisting of three elements located orthogonally: a turn meter, an accelerometer, a magnetometer and a single-channel barometer. Formulas for approximating the mean square deviations of overload, pitch angle and angular velocity indications for various test conditions are given. It is recommended to use the obtained dependences when calibrating accelerometers and angular velocity sensors. Recommendations on the use of different filtering methods depending on the distribution laws of the output parameters of the sensor are given. Various filters used for platformless INS sensors, such as the Kalman filter, the median filter, the AB filter and the complementary filter, are considered. A comparative analysis of algorithms for filtering the output signals of microelectromechanical sensors according to the value of signal-to-noise ratio for an aircraft-type UAV at different propeller speeds was performed. Recommendations are given on the use of the obtained research results for the algorithmic support of lightweight UAV navigation systems.

Key words: sensors, gyroscope, accelerometer, errors, distribution law.

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The way to improve eco-friendliness of the aviation turboshaft engine

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_1_73

Sergey V. Skorobogatov

Dmitry V. Vostretsov

Abstract. Aircraft flight is the main operation of any airline. To ensure competitiveness and good economical indices the flight time should be considerably longer than the total time an airplane spends on the ground. Aircraft flight is provided by a power plant, which is based on heat engines – heat machines that convert heat energy into effective mechanical work. The heat additive to the operating fluid in such engines nearly always occurs by means of hydrocarbon fuel (kerosene or aviation gasoline) combustion. While burning, the combustion products are released, some of which cause significant harm to the environment. Increasing environmental friendliness is an actual task today, and non-compliance of engines with ICAO standards on hazardous emissions limits the domestic aircraft sales and exploitation abroad. In this regard, the search for ways to improve the environmental performance of aircraft engines is a priority for the aviation industry.

Key words: combustion chamber, aviation gas-turbine engine, emissions of harmful substances, environmental friendliness.

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The experience of using GNSS software-defined recievers

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_1_88

Roman O. Arefyev

Oleg N. Skrypnik

Natalya G. Arefyeva (Astrakhanceva)

Abstract. The paper describes the experience of using software-defined receivers for receiving signals from GPS and Beidou navigation satellites. The peculiarities of the GNSS SDR platform and implementation of the satellite navigation system receivers on its basis were considered. The structure of the GNSS SDR flow graph with description of the functional capacity of each block was shown. As an RF part of the receiver, a HackRF platform with an active antenna and Temperature Controlled Crystal Oscillator was used. The receiver was tested with help of the SN-3803M simulator radiating GPS signals. The dependences of the time required for position-fixing and the number of the navigational satellites which provide tracking on the given false alarm probability were obtained experimentally.

Through natural experiments the authors compared the performance (number of tracking satellites, positioning accuracy, dilution of precision) of the SDR-receiver and ATGM336H portable receiver applied to the GPS and Beidou systems. The main features of the receivers operation were identified and analyzed.

Keywords: GPS, SDR, Beidou, software-defined receiver, dilution of precision, positioning accuracy.

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Peculiarities of using a mobile pseudolite for increase of positioning accuracy on aircraft landing *

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_3_14

Oleg Nikolaevich Skrypnik

Roman Olegovich Arefyev

Natalya Gennadyvna Arefyeva (Astrakhanceva)

Tatyana Yuryevna Portnova

Abstract. The authors study accuracy characteristics (dilution of preсision) of an integrated navigation-and-time field in the terminal area created by GLONASS with its mobile pseudolite augmentation. A mobile pseudolite is placed onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The purpose of the article is optimization of UAV flight path which will provide the best aircraft positioning accuracy. The problem of finding an optimal track for the UAV was solved using Hooke-Jeeves method for an aircraft approaching along a flexible track. The article presents the results of the conducted experiments as the UAV optimal flight paths and their charts built according to DOP values for cases of using stationary and mobile pseudolites. Practical recommendations on the choice of optimization criteria are given, and the conditions for using a mobile pseudolite placed on board an unmanned aerial vehicle are determined.

Keywords: pseudolite, mobile pseudolite, unmanned aerial vehicle, Position Dilution of Precision, GLONASS, optimization of flight trajectory, integrated navigation and time field.

* This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Grant No. 19-08- 00010 A).

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Analysis of problems arising during the flight on four-dimensional navigation routes in civil aviation and determining the basic ways of their solution

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_1_37

Alexander Sergeevich Budkov

Abstract. The work is devoted to the analysis of problems during the flight on four-dimensional navigation routes in civil aviation, determining the minimum necessary requirements for a decision support system that would provide a solution to these problems, as well as developing a methodology for searching an optimal four-dimensional route.

Key words: civil aircraft, four-dimensional navigation, flight management system, decision support system.

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Analysis of avionics automation verification means used in the modern civil aircraft development

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2021_1_30

Sergei Alexandrovich Diachenko

Artem Sergeevich Savelev

Abstract. The paper describes the analysis results of the existing automated means used in civil aircraft avionics verification. The main solutions on the market and their advantages, disadvantages are considered. Based on the analysis results, it is found that a promising direction in this type of means development is to provide testing automation of graphic and aural information within the hardware-in-loop verification (including bench tests). The task is relevant not only for the aviation industry, but also for any technical objects using a human-machine interface (space industry, automotive, shipbuilding, etc.).

Key words: analysis, automation, verification, software, civil aircraft, avionics, computer-aided design system, flight safety.

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Development of methodology for managing the information field inside the cockpit onboard a civil airplane

Ivanov A. S.

Neretin E. S.

The authors proposed a methodology for managing the information field inside the cockpit onboard a civil airplane which allows the crew’s workload to be reduced due to applying a unified approach to controlling all indication elements. 

Key words: civil airplane, cockpit, ergonomics, onboard equipment.

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The Earth’s vortex field and its application areas

Danilenko N. V.

The article deals with the issues of circulation of the Earth’s environments in the area of its rotation relative to pole axis NS. The research of circulation of the Earth’s environments is based on the Biot-Savart law in its simplest form on the basis of an infinitely long vortex which has found wide application in airfoil aerodynamics, gas dynamics and in hydrodynamics. When applying the Biot-Savart law to the Earth’s material environments in its daily rotation we found a dependence of circulation of speed Г of the elementary particle under study with its relative height (depth) ±Н relative to the Earth’s averaged surface and geographical latitude.  The essence of this dependence is presented in a mathematical expression of physical parameters of our planet. The obtained intensity of circulation of speed Г of the Earth’s environments is converted in non-dimensional criterial parameters.  On their basis the vortex characteristics for the Earth’s environments are proposed. Their classification is given.  The authors developed a package of consequences of the vortex characteristics and proposed a working process of little known vortex phenomena of geophysics in terms of vortex dynamics of freely balanced environments of a planet of “Earth” type. The consequences of the vortex characteristics of the Earth’s environments and peculiarities of the working process of geophysical phenomena on the Sun are proposed.

Keywords: daily rotation, circulation of the Earth’s environments, vortex characteristics, consequences of the vortex characteristics of the Earth’s environments.

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