Категория: Aircraft, aircraft engines and methods of their operation

Neural network system for laser diagnostics of aircraft cabin glazing elements

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_

Pavel V. Pavlov

Daniil I. Tyurnev

Nikita V. Sukhachev

Abstract. Assessing the technical condition of glazing elements in the cockpits of operational-tactical aircraft still remains the most important task in ensuring flight safety. To increase the efficiency of operations for non-destructive testing of glazing elements using the speckle structure method of optical radiation, the authors propose to use neural network technologies to automatically identify controlled areas in the cockpit. Artificial intelligence technologies have been used to realise this task. They are based on algorithms of semantic segmentation, classification and detection of monitored areas according to the established markers on the cabin due to the application of convolutional neural network on YOLOv8. The application of machine vision technology have made it possible real-time measurement of the glazing exit from the termination when overpressure has been created inside the cabin. This reduces the time for technical condition assessment by at least 10 times. The use of machine vision technologies have made it possible to measure the value of the glazing outlet from the sealing in real time when creating excessive pressure inside the cabin and thereby reduce the time to assess the technical condition by at least 10 times. The authors have established the reason for the discrepancy between the results of using the speckle-structure method of optical radiation in determining the value of glazing yield from the termination and the “tape” method and developed recommendations to reduce measurement errors.

Keywords: non-destructive testing, optical-electronic systems, speckle, semantic segmentation, convolutional neural network, YOLO, glazing.

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Investigation of the influence of acting loads on microstructural changes in the alloy Inconel 738LC

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_

Oleg A. Ratenko

Elizaveta M. Samojlenko

Yurij V. Petrov

Abstract. In modern economic conditions, one of the important tasks is to transfer as many structural elements of aircraft engines as possible to condition-based operation while maintaining a balance between the economic effect and the flight safety level. Such measures will significantly allow aircraft operators to reduce operating costs. One of the candidates for the transition to condition-based operation are turbine blades of gas turbine engines, made from heat-resistant nickel alloys. The microstructure of the heat-resistant nickel alloys is a γ-matrix with dispersed particles of the γ’-phase included into it, which are the elements that provide the high strength properties of nickel alloys. The microstructural changes that occur during the operation of gas turbine engines in turbine blades associated with an increase in the size and shape of the γ’-phase particles, as well as their volume fraction, lead to degradation of the mechanical properties of products. Taking into account these changes can be a tool that will allow one to carry out calculations aimed at assessing the technical condition of the blades of gas turbine engines during their operation.

Key words: gas turbine engine, turbine blade, heat-resistant nickel alloy, γ’-phase, alloy microstructure.

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Aircraft flight safety management system with a basic built-in system of automatic tolerance control of the hydraulic system and failure monitoring and forecasting systems

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_2_

Mihail A Bobrin

Abstract. This paper considers an integrated tolerance control system with failure monitoring and prediction subsystems for aircraft safety management system (ASMS), which is relevant nowadays. The paper deals with the operational component of hydraulic system (HS) tolerance zones. The internal measured parameter is pressure, so it was necessary to find an algorithm that reflects its dependence on operating conditions, its coefficient of kinematic viscosity of the fluid, its temperature, operating time, ambient temperature and flight stage. The operational component of the tolerance zone can be derived from the obtained expression for the pressure by substituting the boundary values of the parameters included in this dependence.

While polling the sensors of the automatic control system it is necessary each time to calculate the range of variation of the parameter for the given stage of flight and other conditions with the help of algorithms for calculating the tolerance zone obtained in the paper. Moreover, the control system has to process a large amount of information using artificial intelligence (AI) methods which allows the safety of aircraft flight (SAF) to be managed.

Keywords: aircraft health management system, aircraft flight safety management system, automatic control system of aircraft hydraulic systems, operational pressure-tolerant zone.

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Sensory and intersensory model of the pilot – aircraft system

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2024_1_67

Gennady V. Kovalenko

Artem A. Fedorov

Andrey V. Fedorov

Abstract. The paper provides an overview of the components of the pilot model used to design the flight control system which focuses on the physiological aspects and aspects of manual control. The structure of a multi-element system is used which allows the authors to reveal the totality of interaction between the pilot and the aircraft during the implementation of manual control. Manual control is the most difficult process when performing an aircraft flight and requires a lot of experience and high pilot skills. The sensory and intersensory models of the pilot–aircraft system are considered. The application of these models requires knowledge of the mechanisms and processes that are directly involved in the development of the pilot’s spatial orientation when controlling the aircraft manually. The development of a method and a mathematical model for the formation of spatial orientation skills is an urgent task of scientific research.

Keywords: pilot, model, spatial disorientation, aircraft, sensory organs, human factor.

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The theorem of gaseous and liquid media vortex formation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_3_47

Nikolay V. Danilenko

Anton G. Kirenchev

Abstract. The object of research is vortex formation of gas (liquid) media. The state of the vortex formation issue is determined. The theoretical substantiation of the vortex formation problem is given. The kinematic essence of the gas-dynamic phenomenon of vortex formation is established. Its contradictions are revealed. The working process of vortex formation is established. Efficiency parameters and operating parameters are obtained. The place of vortex formation in the equation of conservation of the energy of gas motion is indicated. A set of factors for the generation of vortex activity of natural and man-made vortex formation has been established. A theorem on vortex formation is proposed. Its consequences and areas of practical application are outlined.

Keywords: vortex formation of gas (liquid) media, factors of generation and activation of vortex formation, workflow of gas (liquid) media, definition of vortex formation, vortex formation theorem, classification of vortex formation.

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About the legitimacy of the technical operation process description by semi-markov models in relation to the aircraft fleet

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_2_34

Sergey S. Trishin

Evgeniya A. Achkasova

Oksana G. Boiko

Galina A. Isheeva

Abstract. The authors studied the time the Mi-8T Mi8-MTV aircraft spent in the states of technical operation. The statistical data of the operating airline of JSC “Norilsk Avia” were used. Statistical distribution laws are formalized for each time series of variations. The conformity of the theoretical and obtained statistical laws of time distribution according to the Pearson criterion has been verified. It is confirmed that the process of technical operation of aircraft in practical tasks can be considered as a semi-Markov one.

Keywords: semi-Markov process, time spent in the process state, statistical data processing, exponential distribution, technical operation of aircraft, integral distribution function.

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Automated device for determining the changes in phase and state of polymer materials

DOI 10.51955/23121327_2022_2_19

Nikolai G. Filippenko

Denis V. Bakanin

Vladimir S. Bychkovsky

Abstract. This paper is devoted to the development of a control system for the study of thermophysical properties and phase transformations in polymer and composite materials. The use of polymeric materials instead of non-ferrous and stainless metals is a necessary and promising process in the production and repair of units and mechanisms of aircraft. This trend has received particular development in recent decades, not only in aviation, but also in the entire transport engineering. Replacing metals with plastics and composites based on them reduces the main indicator in the products of this industry, namely its weight. Often, when designing and operating aircraft, it becomes simply impossible to manufacture competitive products without the use of polymers and composites in their design. The strength properties of polymers in a number of aircraft designs are compensated by the resources of their use, which are not always measured by significant time resources. Nevertheless, despite the unique capabilities of new structural polymers, the issue of changing their electro-physic-chemical properties in the process of exposure to temperature loads and other external factors during operation remains open. The algorithm of automated control and monitoring of the experimental study of the process of high-frequency electrothermy presented by the authors makes it possible to obtain more objective data on the results of the studies. The implemented algorithm of the automated control system, in the form of a software package, made it possible to obtain new and clarify the existing results of previously conducted experiments in relation to structural materials used in the manufacture and repair of aircraft and other vehicles.

Key words: transport, polymeric materials, composites, thermophysical properties, automated control system for scientific research, phase transformations.

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The way to improve eco-friendliness of the aviation turboshaft engine

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2022_1_73

Sergey V. Skorobogatov

Dmitry V. Vostretsov

Abstract. Aircraft flight is the main operation of any airline. To ensure competitiveness and good economical indices the flight time should be considerably longer than the total time an airplane spends on the ground. Aircraft flight is provided by a power plant, which is based on heat engines – heat machines that convert heat energy into effective mechanical work. The heat additive to the operating fluid in such engines nearly always occurs by means of hydrocarbon fuel (kerosene or aviation gasoline) combustion. While burning, the combustion products are released, some of which cause significant harm to the environment. Increasing environmental friendliness is an actual task today, and non-compliance of engines with ICAO standards on hazardous emissions limits the domestic aircraft sales and exploitation abroad. In this regard, the search for ways to improve the environmental performance of aircraft engines is a priority for the aviation industry.

Key words: combustion chamber, aviation gas-turbine engine, emissions of harmful substances, environmental friendliness.

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The Earth’s vortex field and its application areas

Danilenko N. V.

The article deals with the issues of circulation of the Earth’s environments in the area of its rotation relative to pole axis NS. The research of circulation of the Earth’s environments is based on the Biot-Savart law in its simplest form on the basis of an infinitely long vortex which has found wide application in airfoil aerodynamics, gas dynamics and in hydrodynamics. When applying the Biot-Savart law to the Earth’s material environments in its daily rotation we found a dependence of circulation of speed Г of the elementary particle under study with its relative height (depth) ±Н relative to the Earth’s averaged surface and geographical latitude.  The essence of this dependence is presented in a mathematical expression of physical parameters of our planet. The obtained intensity of circulation of speed Г of the Earth’s environments is converted in non-dimensional criterial parameters.  On their basis the vortex characteristics for the Earth’s environments are proposed. Their classification is given.  The authors developed a package of consequences of the vortex characteristics and proposed a working process of little known vortex phenomena of geophysics in terms of vortex dynamics of freely balanced environments of a planet of “Earth” type. The consequences of the vortex characteristics of the Earth’s environments and peculiarities of the working process of geophysical phenomena on the Sun are proposed.

Keywords: daily rotation, circulation of the Earth’s environments, vortex characteristics, consequences of the vortex characteristics of the Earth’s environments.

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Justification for requirements for new trapped vortex combustors of aircraft engines

Skorobogatov S. V.

Design and production of aircraft gas-turbine engines and their components is a high-scale and complex process. As separate branches of science develop, technological innovations are implemented and feed-back of their use is received, the design-and-production chain gets more complicated as well. On the one hand, this gives an opportunity to improve the product due to implementation of new ideas and approaches in its design, on the other hand, this brings about growth in the knowledge-intensity and increases the cost of the final product. In its turn, need for improvement of the product is required by the system of continued airworthiness with its standards improving over time as well.

Key words: combustor, aircraft gas-turbine engine, operational requirements, method of justification for requirements, airworthiness.

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