Категория: 13.00.00 — Pedagogical Sciences

Critical thinking of “digital natives” generation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_4_211 

Anna Y. Veretennikova

Abstract. The main question presented in this paper is “Is critical thinking typical for the current generation of young people, the so-called “digital natives”? Having considered the views of researchers on the term “critical thinking”, the author’s definition is given as “a system of mental states, processes aimed at developing an assessment.” It is emphasized that the theories of the activity approach and evaluation activities can be the basis for studying this aspect. It is noted that, despite the declaration of mandatory work on the formation of this type of thinking among students at all levels of national education, the study of the judgments of representatives of the generation of “digital natives” from the point of view of critical thinking revealed a weak degree of understanding of the relevance, essence of this type of thinking, and also, in most cases, the lack of skills in its operations. It is emphasized that clip perception, characteristic of the modern generation of young people, hinders the development of critical thinking. Based on the study, a conclusion is made about the need for targeted educational work with an emphasis on the development of students’ critical thinking. Some methods of work are given.

Keywords: D. Dewey, critical thinking, clip perception, digital natives, evaluation activity, Socratic dialogues.

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Quiz as a tool to attract readers to writings about russian robinsons

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_4_222

Tatiana V. Shvetsova

Veronika E. Shakhova

Abstract. The article describes the concept of creation and application of quiz-technology as an actual tool for participation of students to reading works about adventures «robinsons» from Mezen in the Arctic. Material for the design of the class serves an 18th century essay. The book by P. L. Le Roy «The adventures of four Russian sailors to the island of East Spitsbergen brought by storm, where they have lived for six years and three months» (1766) is difficult to perceive for a modern teenager. As practice has shown, quiz is a productive means of encouraging schoolchildren to reading the text. In our case, the quiz allows us to solve two problems in a game form: to increase the motivation for studying the literature, and to acquaint with one of the key stories in the literary history of the Russian North – the survival of fishermen on the Edge island in 1743-1749.

Keywords: Russian Robinsons, Quiz Technology, Arctic Quiz, Native Literature, Arctic studies.

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Structural and functional model of the categorical system of social upbringing in the scientific substantiation

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_4_187

Zulfiya A. Aksyutina

Abstract. The article provides a scientific substantiation of the categorical system of social upbringing based on the structural and functional model developed by the author. The scientific substantiation assumed the designation of the place and function of the model representation in the structure of the scientific substantiation. When conducting research, the author, following V. V. Kraevsky, understood the methodology of pedagogy as “a system of knowledge about the foundations and structure of pedagogical theory, about the principles of approach and methods of obtaining knowledge that reflect pedagogical reality”. Modeling, theoretical analysis and categorical synthesis were used as the main methods. Modeling was used to develop a structural and functional model of the scientific substantiation of the categorical system of social upbringing. The starting point of the model is pedagogical reality, the practical activity of social education in the broad sense as a special sphere of social activity, as part of social reality. They found a description by highlighting the components for theoretical analysis: the field of cognitive description, the normative sphere and the practice of social upbringing. Categorical synthesis was carried out using the pedagogical categories of social upbringing. For further scientific substantiation of the categorical system of social education, a promising direction for the search for mechanisms for the transition from theory to practice, from research to design, from judgments to norms is highlighted.

Key words: social upbringing, categorical system of social upbringing, scientific substantiation, pedagogical category, pedagogical concept, structural-functional model, field of cognitive description, normative sphere, practice of social upbringing.

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Experience in organizing an eco-educational project within the framework of educational work with students in higher education

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_4_198

Anastasia V. Danchevskaya

Abstract. The article is devoted to the problem of eco-educational events organizing in higher education organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. The material for the study was the results of the project activities implementation within the framework of a problem-oriented approach on the example of a specific eco-educational event – the ecological forum “Disposable Planet”. The study used general scientific inductive methods, the method of analysis and the search method. The relevance of the topic is due to a number of factors: the actualization of the educational component, the complex environmental situation of the modern world, the weak development of environmental competencies among young people. The paper presents a brief analysis of Russian and foreign scientific literature on the problem of project-based learning in general and the features of environmental education in the form of project activities, in particular. The author presents and analyzes the experience of organizing an eco–educational project – the ecological forum “One-time Life”, held in March 2022 based on the East Siberian Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. The relevance and educational orientation of the event in the system of higher education and youth education, as well as in educational institutions of higher education of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is determined. The practical experience of the implementation of this project and its main results are presented. The main target audience were students of the Institute of 1-4 courses of full-time faculties. The forum allowed to reach 25 people, increase the knowledge, skills and abilities of the forum participants in three areas of environmental education, develop six projects to conduct environmental education events at the university, as well as attract other persons to cooperate with the institute as part of its greening.

Keywords: education, environmental forum, environmental education, organization of events, East Siberian Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, ESI of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.

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Teaching foreign language theory at university in the conditions of digital reality

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_4_172

Ivan D. Kachurin

Abstract. The educational reality of modern university is constructed by two crucial factors: conceptual, associated with the change of educational paradigm, and organizational, reflected in the transition to the levels of education. The methodology of teaching foreign language theory is determined by the aforementioned factors. This study focuses on current issues of teaching linguo-theoretical courses and is meant to develop some elements of the methodological system in accordance with the educational realities of the modern university environment and the systematic, analytical and digital competence-based priorities of FSES 3++. The paper outlines the use of a digital linguistic system of German language – Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache (DWDS) – as a structured digital learning environment with a dictionary and corpora, supported by multilevel tools such as a word profile, concordance and corpora manager. DWDS components are validated of their potential in solving methodological problems of teaching foreign language theory. According to the identified methodological problems, some arguments pro incorporation of digital linguistic system (hereafter referred to as DLS) in teaching linguo-theoretical courses at university are provided. Based on the identified methodological problems, the Digital Linguistic System (hereinafter DLS) is considered as one of the possible solutions to methodological problems in teaching foreign language theory.

Key words: methodology, linguo-theoretical courses, FSES 3++, competencies, digital technologies, student-centred learning, corpora.

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Problems of mastering information technologies in the training of aviation industry specialists

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_4_159

Nickolay B. Barchev

Abstract. The work is devoted to the analysis of actual problems arising during the mastering modern and promising information technologies in universities by future certified specialists of the aviation industry in the avionics system. This work notes the main negative consequences of such problems, which seriously complicate the independent practical activities of graduates of higher education in the field of information technology and in the sphere of software development. The work attempts to identify the most significant factors that lead to the emergence of these problems. Various aspects of the adverse influence of the identified factors on the process of training specialists and practical possibilities to compensate for the influence of these factors are considered in the material. The relevant recommendations are also given in this work. They can be used in the construction of curricula and in the formation of programs of disciplines of the information technology cycle.

Keywords: information technologies, aviation industry, software, life cycle, coding, programming language, curricula.

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The peculiarities of the language of russian germans (a case study of fairy tales by N. Wacker)

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_3_213

Vera B. Merkuryeva

Abstract. In the article, using the examples from Nellie Wacker’s fairy tales, which were published by a Kazakh publishing house in 1995, when the author was already living in Cologne (Germany), the originality of the language of Russian Germans is demonstrated. The article represents a certain contribution to the development of linguopersonology. The bilingual author consciously, and sometimes unconsciously, includes examples from the field of grammar, vocabulary, semantics and stylistics in the texts of fairy tales. All of them arose as a result of the contact of the two languages: German and Russian, as well as the processes of interference, and the consequences of the influence of the Russian language on the German one. All examples are confirmed by native German speakers and are clear evidence of the artistic bilingualism of Russian Germans.

Keywords: language contacts, bilingualism, literary bilingualism, bilingual literary text, interfering influence, Russianisms, fairy tale.

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Application of hierarchical cluster analysis in the training of aviation specialists

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_3_158

Denis A. Evsevichev

Evgeniy A. Kostikov

Yury V. Shtyrlov

Ekaterina S. Alyakina

Abstract. The article discusses an approach to assessing the quality of the formation of competencies in the relevant disciplines mastered by a student or cadet of an educational institution of civil aviation. The assessment is formed by applying one of the unsupervised machine learning methods – hierarchical cluster analysis. Data collection to assess the cadets’ performance of a higher educational institution of civil aviation was carried out during the development of the discipline «Radio equipment of airfields». The experimental study took place during the semester. Tests for the discipline were formed in special Google forms, which made it possible to simplify the process of data collection and provide convenient control over the execution of tests. Data processing and further work with them was carried out in the Jupyter Notebook development environment using the high-level object-oriented programming language Python. In the program for the implementation of clustering, the cluster.hierarchy.linkage method from the SciPy library was used. For a graphical determination of the optimal number of clusters into which the sample should be divided, the Cattell’s scree criterion was used. The described approach makes it possible to single out students into separate groups (clusters) in order to automate the verification of the development of competencies.

Keywords: education, competencies, grade, statistics, machine learning, clustering, cluster analysis, dendrogram, automation, program.

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Law enforcement officers’ social and humanitarian support in the period of their professional and personal development

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_3_171

Larisa Yu. Nezhkina

Abstract. The paper is devoted to the idea of law enforcement officers’ social and humanitarian support during their professional and personal development. The professional development of an officer’s personality begins in the period of his/her training in an educational organization of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia and is an important part of life because during this period he/she gains the necessary professional knowledge, skills and abilities which will practically influence the result of his/her activities. It is important to note that during that period significant business and personal qualities are formed as well as moral guidelines that show the person’s attitude to work and people, and therefore, it is important to pay special attention to the formation of business, personal and moral qualities during the officer’s professional and personal development. In this regard, the idea of social and humanitarian support for officers is proposed. An officer’s social and humanitarian support during the training period is understood as creating conditions for the development of a conscious understanding of the profession and his/her role in it, formation of the best human qualities, motivation for self-education and self-study. Such conditions imply a dialogue interaction between the teacher and the student, psychological and pedagogical assistance and support. The author outlines the main essence of social and humanitarian support and possible ways of its implementation. At the end of the paper, the importance of the implementation of social and humanitarian support in the period of officers’ professional and personal development is emphasized. The practical significance lies in the fact that the implementation of officers’ social and humanitarian support during the training period in an educational organization of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia will make it possible to qualitatively change the educational environment, create conditions for the development of spiritual and moral maturity, the existential orientation of the individual to self-actualization, professional and personal development.

Key words: personal development, profession, formation, education, support, officer, humanistic approach.

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Innovations in the system of higher technical education in Russia at the present time

DOI 10.51955/2312-1327_2023_3_144

Olga V. Toporkova

Abstract. The article deals with innovations in the domestic system of higher technical education in the first decades of the 21st century. The advantages and disadvantages of the country’s participation in the Bologna Agreement for higher technical education are analyzed, new mechanisms for implementing the personalization of student learning used at Russian technical universities, including individual educational trajectories, using foreign languages when teaching students, project activities, etc. are considered. The article analyzes the features of the implementation of competence-based approach in the domestic practice of higher technical education at the present time, the importance of using a transdisciplinary approach in designing the content of educational programs as well as the need to use active teaching methods for prospective engineers and student-centered learning models are emphasized. The article considers the use of digital technologies in the training of professionals in the field of engineering and technology in our country, the advantages and disadvantages of digitalization of engineering education. The difficulties associated with the introduction of e-learning and distance learning technologies are introduced.

Key words: innovations, higher technical education, Bologna process, personalization of student learning, individual educational trajectories, digital learning technologies, project-based learning, competence-based approach.

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